Examples: All three of the college professors Ive met in my
lifetime were bald. Therefore, all college professors are bald
At my school 34 people like school, so 34% only likes school.
Outline on Fallacious Reasoning
Avoiding Fallacious Reasoning
1. Common but bad arguments
2. Appear so often in writing and in speech that philosophy has given them
names and tips on h
The Development of Personality
The Development of Personality:
Freud believed that personality develops in a predictable way
o The Following are Stages of Developing Personality:
1. Stage 1- Oral (0-18months): Id gratifies itself through biting, sucking
Personality Defense Mechanisms
1) Repression Banish the painful thought down into the unconscious.
2) Regression Retreat to an earlier stage of development.
3) Reaction Formation - Form the opposite reaction to an anxiety provoking sti
The Cognitive Effects Upon Emotion
o Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and emotional
o Three Steps:
1. Perceived Event See a snarling dog
a. Physiological and Behavioral Responses Attent
Fear and Anger
o Natural fears vs. learned fears
o Little Albert Study
The amygdala regulates fear response
Damage to this area affects detection, experience of fear
o Do we feel better after releasing anger?
What should we do then?
o Wait it o
Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
o He took a more positive view of human behavior and rejected original psychoanalysis
and behaviorism principles.
o He believed that there were several levels of needs one must strive to
David McClellands Three Psychological Needs
David McClellands three psychological needs
Achieve desire to achieve goals, both realistic and challenging = strongly related to
success in school, occupation and production can lead to personal or material ric
The Dimensions of Emotion and Expressed Emotion
The Two Dimensions of Emotion
o Positive or negative
o Low or High Arousal
o Physiology of Emotion Autonomic nervous system controls physiological
o A Little History:
o Charles Darw
The Psychological Need for Power
Power not about reaching a goal but to control other people.
Their ideas used, Status and prestige material wealth
o People who exhibit N-Pow tendencies are most satisfied by seeing their
environment move in a certain dire
What is Emotion?
o A response of the whole organism.
o Physiological arousal
o Expressive Behaviors
o Conscious Experience
Emotions are Important for:
Translating motivational states into behavior
o For Example: If you are scared, yo
The Psychological Effects of Happiness
o Feel good Do good
o Subjective Well-Being
o Moods change over time of day; balance out over time
o Does money really make us happier?
Studies show that income plays a small role in moods but does not hold
We have a tendency to attribute behavior of others to personal characteristics (and ignore
FAE may not be so fundamental:
o Doesnt hold in all cultures
Other factors influencing person perception?
Our connections with people impact our well-being
o Also impact how we think
Social Cognition = the scientific study of how people perceive, remember,
& interpret information about themselves and others.
We are social bei
Asch Studies : a research procedure used to mislead participants about the true nature of the
Milgram Studies : experimenters who pose as participants to help create a deception
Conformity - Fitting in with the group
Jot down your responses
What is the most important contributor to a sense of meaning in your life?
What is the greatest source of stress and disappointment in your life?
A social psychology study asked those question
The Five Central Traits The Big Five
The Five Central Traits (The Big Five)
1. Openness to Experience
a. Imaginative, intellectual, curious, creative, unconventional
b. Simple, conventional, down-to-earth, narrow interests, closed to new ideas.
The Trait Perspective
Traits: characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel, think, and act
The are Stable, heritable, exist across cultures
o How many traits are there?
More like 2 -7 basic traits
What is Personality?
Your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
o Psychodynamic Theory
o Humanistic Theory
o Trait Theory
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
o A.K.A. Psychodynamic theory
1st theory of personalit
Attribution Theory Bias
Are we really such good scientists?
Yes and no!
We do engage in the attributional processes
Limited time and ability
We take mental shortcuts, increased speed
o Decreased accuracy & bias
An Attribution Bias
o The funda
Experimental Study of Priming Perception
Priming & social perception: An experimental study
o All participants completed a memory task
o Actually priming
o List of words with stubborn or persistent
o All participants did a reading comprehension task
Prejudice and Stereotypes and Example of Social Roles
Classic Study Festinger (1959)
o Participants asked to complete a VERY boring task for one hour
o Paid either $1 or $20 to try and convince a female participant waiting that the task was
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
o Has existed since 1952, with several revisions
o Current edition: DSM-IV-TR
o Groups disorders by category
o Checklist of observable symptoms
Examples of Disorders
Monica has gone away to college and feels lonely, sad, and dejected.
o Her grades are fine, and she gets along ok with the other students in the dorm, but
inside shes choked with gloom, hopelessness, and despair.
Other stresses are common to daily life
o Negative events or Positive events
Major life changes often precede illnesses
How much of a change is important to how stressful it is, what the