Suffolk County Community College
Eastern Campus - Riverhead, New York
General Microbiology BIO244
Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.
(pronounced: dok ter zhur ra)
Tuesday 7:50 8:20, 11:50 1:00
The purpose of this report was to accurately identify two unknown bacteria using phenotypic
methods of biochemical test applications of various practical methods learned in a microbiology
laboratory setting. As a health major, identifying unk
Staining of microorganisms
(focus on bacteria)
Staining: coloring a microbe with a
dye that binds to and emphasizes
Before staining, a sample of bacteria must
be fixed to a microscope slide.
A smear of bacteria (th
Definition: long chains of subunits
called AMINO ACIDS joined by
PEPTIDE BONDS (dehydration
There are 20 different amino acids.
Each one contains a central carbon bound to an
amino group, a carboxylic acid group, a
hydrogen, and an R (
The science of classifying organisms
Provides universal names for organisms
Provides a reference for identifying
Systematics or phylogeny
The study of the evolutionary history of
All Species Inventory
All are organic (based on carbon).
Monomers vs. polymers:
Monomers refer to the subunits that, when
polymerized, make up a larger polymer.
Monomers may function on their own in some cases.
Four types of biological molecules
extreme environments, unusual metabolism, walls not peptidoglycan
acidic sulfur-rich hot springs
halophiles: require minimum 9%NaCl
red-orange pigments for UV protection
Summary of Metabolism
Mechanism of Enzyme Action
1. The substrate contacts the active site
2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed.
3. The substrate molecule is altered
(atoms are rearranged, or the substrate is broken into smaller parts, or the substra
Uses and additives of individual tubes
Additive: SPS- Sodium Polyanetholsulfonate (poly-anethol-sulfonate)
What additive does: Prevents the blood from clotting and stabilizes bacterial growth.
Laboratory Uses: Blood and bodily fluid cultures