Validity
The Pepsi Challenge
Do people prefer the taste of Pepsi or Coke?
Give sample of Coke in a paper cup marked L
Give sample of Pepsi in paper cup marked S
(Order randomly selected)
Pepsi wins!
But
Label was confounded with beverage (L always Coke an
Reliability v. Validity
But will your data test your hypothesis?
Reliability
Variable
Reliability
Types of Error
Observed Score or measure = true value error
E.g., Exam score = knowledge stress
Random Error
Can be in the instrument or in the person being
Correlations
Now we will practice calculating correlations!
Pearson s R
Measures how well two constructs are correlated
std
std
Interpretation of Correlations
Correlations interpreted on the basis of:
Strength
strength the farther dorm zer0= stronger the
Between Subject Designs
Between Subject Designs
(aka Independent measures design)
Select a sample of people > Assign them to groups> IV Level 1>
Measure DV
> IV Level 2
> Measure DV
Advantages
Clean measures
No practice or fatigue effects
Participants ar
Ethics in Research
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Principles for Ethics in Research
Autonomy
Trust
Justice
Nonmaleficence & Beneficence
Fidelity and Scientific Integrity
Autonomy
The participant must have the unbiased / uncorked right:
To know what they are participating
Describing Results
Estimating a Population Using a Sample
Population
- The group that you are studying
Sample
- A subset of the population
We are estimating the value of the population base on the values we measure
with our sample
(which is why having a r
Correlation
Correlational Research
Purpose is to examine the relationship between 2 variables, x and y.
Relationship does NOT imply causation!
Correlation allows us to say that X is related to Y, but
- Does X cause Y?
- Does Y cause X?
- Does Z cause both
Intro to Experimental Methods
Independent > Dependent Variable
When confounds exist = EVIL
Finding a relationship between two variables is easy
the hard part is demonstrating that one variable causes a change in the other.
Correlation
Relationship betwee
Participant Sampling
- Population of Interest (College Students): Sampling: Sample (people who took
the survey)
NOTE: Sampling is not the same as assignment
- Sampling: how we select people from the population (today)
- Assignment: how we place that sampl
Oversight
Oversight in the United States
Who determines if researchers follow guidelines?
People: Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Animals: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
Oversight Process
Composed of unaffiliated member, prisoner adv
Factorial Design: Running on Caffeine
Lab Report #5
Pedro Bringas
PSY 313
Dr. Amy Criss and Mr. Michael Ioerger
1.
High Arousal
Low Arousal
Average
Attractive
7.00
6.14
6.57
Unattractive
4.93
5.18
Average
5.96
5.66
5.06
2.
This is a 2x2 factorial design.
Guinea Pig Lab
Lab Report #4
Pedro Bringas
PSY 313
Dr. Amy Criss and Mr. Michael Ioerger
Part I: Fishy Business Experiment
Table 1
Organized
Recall
Mean
8.60
SD
0.55
Random
Mean
7.50
SD
1.22
2.
The independent variable of this experiment is the organizati
1
Collegiate Smoking: A Social Experience
Methods
2
Collegiate Smoking: A Social Experience
3
Participants
Collegiate Smoking: A Social Experience
4
Collegiate Smoking: A Social Experience
In this study, a section of the PSY 313 course at Syracuse Univers
Introduction to
Experimental Methods
G&F textbook Ch 7
(read this chapter its really good!)
The experimental machine
control
Confounds!
manipulate
Independent
Variable
measure
Dependent
Variable
Outline
Elements of Experimental Design
Experimental Contr
Experimental Research:
Between-Subject
and
Within-Subject Designs
G&F Ch 8 (up to pg 243) and Ch
9 (up to pg 269)
Outline
Between Subjects Design
What does it mean?
Advantages/disadvantages
Specific Experimental Designs
Individual differences
Contro
1. Bob is designing a participant-style observational research study to understand leadership inside of
the local Steelworkers Union. He should:
A. Create his own union
B. Set up cameras to secretly observe union meetings
C. Bring union workers into his l
INTRO. TO RESEARCH
METHODS
METHODS SECTION
Provide enough detail for an exact replication
Participants
How many people participated? What is the distribution of sex?
What is the year in school range & mean? What was the
sampling plan? How did you adminis
Mean
Mean= average of a set of scores.
Calculated by: sum of the scores / number of scores
1. Calculating the sum
2. Dividing it by the number of scores
Ex) To calculate the mean of 5, 8, 2, and 1:
First add up the numbers: 5 + 8 + 2 + 1 = 16.
The
DESCRIBING THE
RESULTS OF A
STUDY
Chapter 15 (to pg 456)
OUTLINE
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
How
to figure out which of these to use
Measures of Stability Dispersion
Standard
Deviation
Variance
Standard Scores
ESTIMATING A POPULATI
Outline
How to define the question of interest
Theory
Hypothesis
Constructs
Operational definitions
Variables
Independent
Dependent
Are you able to answer that question?
Reliability
Validity
Outline
How to define the question of interest
Theory
Hypothesis
How to write scientific papers
Scientific writing is different
from English Composition
Very
plain
avoid flowery prose and hyperbole (biggest
ever)
Fact
based
Anything you state as true must be supported
by a reference (e.g., peer reviewed article)
People
Welcome to
Introduction to Research
Methodology
PSY 313
Todays Plan
What is research methodology?
Course policies/grading
Syllabus & schedule
Acquiring Knowledge
Why do you need to study
research methods?
You are surrounded by reports of
research findings
Research Ideas come from Many Sources:
Casual Sources
Interests, Curiosity, Fleeting Thoughts
(I wonder if moments)
Casual Observations
(people watching)
Beliefs
(intuition, tenacity, or authority)
Research Ideas come from Many Sources:
Informed/Formal
Reliability and Validity
G&F Ch 3 (pgs 77-89) and Ch 6
So you have an idea
Is lack of sleep related to memory loss?
Use a survey instrument to assess sleep
Correlate with memory experiment results
How are car advertisements related to car sales?
Measur
13/10/2015 15:51:00
PSY 313 Exam 1 Review Sheet
There are four types of questions on this exam:
D: Those that require you to know the definition of a term.
I: Those that require you to be able to generate an example or identify an example
when given a sce
Factorial Design
G&F Textbook Chapter 11
Outline
Factorial Design
What
does it mean?
Main Effects and Interactions
How to interpret a graph to recognize main
effects and interactions
Factorial Designs
Factor:
Level:
Last night
Well Rested Sleep Deprived
Survey Research and Self-Report
G & F textbook Ch 13
handout #2
Outline for Today
Surveys
Survey structure
Open-ended vs Restricted questions
Pros & Cons
Types of restricted questions
Potential Problems
Surveys
Some Examples
Survey Structure
Open with a n