EFB311 Evolution 2016
Study Guide for Section 1
What is biological evolution?
The change over time in the proportions of individual organisms differing
genetically on one or more traits.
Micro vs. macroevolution
Microevolution: evolution within a
Review for Exam 3, 2016
Dr. Rebecca J. Rundell
Are species real entities? Why or why dont you think so? (no right answer here; just
think of some of the evidence I presented in favor or not in favor, not just in this
lecture but throu
Lab 2: What is Biodiversity?
Develop familiarity with major vocabulary terms, and be able to use each in context.
Use and construct a dichotomous key.
Discuss the usefulness of dichotomous keys for a variety of
Lab 6: Ascomycota
Name the synapomorphy uniting Ascomycota.
Differentiate between morphological character states in typical ascocarps.
Name and identify microscopic reproductive structures found in Ascomycota.
Lab 5: Basidiomycota
Identify fungal structures and name their functions.
Distinguish morphological features of a typical basidiomycete.
Recognize morphological and ecological diversity in the basidiomycota on both macro
Lab 3: Viruses
1. Recognize various symptoms associated with viral colonization/infection in plants.
2. Explain the effects of synergism.
3. Understand the role that viruses and viral synergism may play in the process of evolution and
Lab 4: Fungal Field Trip
Become familiar with vocabulary specific to mushroom features and identification.
Name and locate the parts of a mushroom on an actual specimen and on a diagram.
Name features typically used in m
characterized by basidiospores formed on
basidia (sing. basidium)
Three subphyla recognized
n Pucciniomycotina (=Urediniomycetes)
Lab 7: Rusts & Smuts (Basidiomycota), and Zygomycota
Differentiate between the types of spores exhibited by rusts.
Note the ecological roles performed by different spore types within the rusts.
Rusts, Smuts, and World Trade
Uredinales - the Rusts; ~5000 species
Ustilaginales - the Smuts; ~1200 species
All are parasitic on plants, often causing great damage
to many cultivated crops - h
° ' Germinating
. ' basidiospores and
Bas'd'ospores 0" monokaryotic, primary
0 0 I . O
o - Young
. . o o
VIRAL DIVERSITY II
Darwins blind spot
NeoDarwinism vs symbiogenesis
Viral eucaryogenesis and nuclear viriogenesis
Viruses and the tree-of-life
viruses and the origin of life
Viruses and the three domains of life
Mutualisms are Everywhere
Chloroplasts are bacteria
Eukaryotic cells evolved through
endosymbiosis: mitochondria are Bacteria!
The Tree of Life as We Now Know It
Mycorrhiza = Fungus-root
Plants get from the fungi
soil minerals (N, P,
Lab 1 Bioquest
Explore familiarity with the major categories of organisms to be studied over the two semesters of EFB 210 and
211, Diversity of Life
Over the next two semesters you will be exposed to some of the biological
EFB 210 Lab 2
A walk through the lab
Basidiomycota Take Two
With dikaryotic hyphae
Without a basidiocarp
With a basidium
Often require two hosts = heteroecious
5 possible spore stages
Apothecium Cleistothecium Perithecium
Each with asci (ascus) and ascospores
Asci each with 8 ascospores
Reproduction in ascomycetes
Ascus containing 8
(Some) forms exhibited by
Ascos and Basidios
Both share compartmentalized mycelium
Dikaryotic stage in life cycle
Production of asexual conidia
Sometimes complex dispersal systems
Increasing evidence that they diverged from
EFB 210, Fall 2015
I. What is biodiversity?
A. general definition:
B. Types of Biodiversity
1. genetic diversity:
2. organismal diversity:
a. species richness:
b. species evenness:
3. ecological (ecosystem) diversity:
C. Spatial Pattern
Naming a virus
c) Cucumber +
b) Leaf curl
c) Wilt +
Difficult to ascertain if material is entirely
Factors involved in symptom expression
n Two distinct sub-groups
who love to eat wild mushrooms
n Those who would never dream of it
origins - Kickers
n Central/Eastern Europe, Asia - Pickers
How do you tell if a
History of Life on Earth
EFB 210, Fall 2015
I. Geologic Timeline
A. Archean Eon (3.8 billion 2.5 billion years ago)
B. Proterozoic Eon (2.5 billion 545 million years ago)
1. Cryogenian Period (850 635 mya)
2. Ediacaran (Vendian) Period (635 545 mya)
Taxonomy and Systematics: Describing Biodiversity
EFB 210, Fall 2015
I. Taxonomic History
taxon (pl., taxa):
B. Greeks and Romans
C. Middle Ages
2. polynomial system:
D. Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne, 1707-1778)
Quantitative Genetics Lecture 3 Wrapping up with QTLs
OK, you win I will post my lecture notes on my web site BUT!
I am NOT committing Dr. Powell to posting his If attendance drops, I WILL pull them I won't start posting them unt
Next topic: Extensions of Mendelian Analysis
Extensions of Mendelian Analysis
http:/www.esf.edu/efb/powell/inheritance2.pdf Or go to my homepage, click on teaching, under Genetics click on inhertance2
Real world - often more
Lecture 2.5, Fall 2006 Reading assignment: Chapter 25 & The Florida Panther Study Dr. Charles Maynard 216 Marshall Hall x-6560 Cmaynard@syr.edu
What We Will Cover Today
Review of populations & geography ! Discussion of the Florid
Some ground rules
Don't just sit there - ask
something! Interrupt me Read the book, but don't panic if you are a little confused
(however, it's OK to panic if neither the
lecture or the book make sense)
Some concepts I will assume you understa
Published online: 14 November 2006; | doi:10.1038/news061113- 9
Was life on Earth inevitable?
Life may be the ultimate in planetary stress relief, a new theory claims.
The appearance of life on Earth seems to face so many