Bacillus- a rod shaped organism
^when in clusters they are Staphylococci
^When in chains they are Streptococci
Bacteria that retain purple stain are Gram positive (gm+)
Bacteria that do not retain stain are Gram negative (gm-)
Inflammation is a response to tissue injury and infection; the process is a protective mechanism
in which the body attempts to neutralize and destroy harmful agents at the site of injury and to
establish conditions for tissue repair. Although there is a
This chapter discusses two major topics: vitamins and minerals. These substances are needed in correct
proportions for normal body function. Overuse of vitamins and minerals, particularly fat-soluble
vitamins and iron, may lead to vitamin or iron toxicity
The pharmaceutic phase (dissolution) is the first phase of drug action.
In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, drugs need to be in solution so they can be absorbed. A drug in solid
form (tablet or capsule) must disintegrate into small pa
Upper respiratory infections include the common cold, acute rhinitis, sinusitis, and acute
The common cold is caused by the rhinovirus and primarily affects the nasopharyngeal
Acute rhinitis (acute inflammation of the mucous membranes
Vomiting, the expulsion of gastric contents, has a multitude of causes. Nausea, a queasy sensation, may or
may not precede the expulsion.
The cause of the vomiting must be identified. Antiemetics can mask the underlying cause of vomiting and
should not b
This chapter describes fluid and electrolyte replacement based on specific electrolyte and fluid deficits
Fluid and electrolyte balance is necessary to maintain homeostasis. Intake must equal output to
maintain fluid balance, and the body co
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive pulmonary disease are the two major
categories of lower respiratory tract disorders.
COPD is caused by airway obstruction with increased airway resistance of airflow to lung tissues.
A drug interaction is an altered or modified action or effect of a drug as a result of an interaction
with one or more other drugs.
An adverse drug reaction is an undesirable drug effect that ranges from mild untoward effects to
Peptic ulcer is a broad term for an ulcer occurring in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum within
the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Peptic ulcers occur when there is a hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, which erode the
GI mucosal lining
DRUG STANDARDS AND LEGISLATION
The United States Pharmacopeia National Formulary (USP-NF) is the authoritative source for drug
The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 empowered the FDA to ensure drug safety by
monitoring and regulating the man
Nutrients are needed for cell growth, cellular function, enzyme activity, carbohydrate-fat-protein synthesis,
muscular contraction, wound healing, immune competence, and gastrointestinal integrity. Inadequate nutrient
intake can result from surgery, traum