alleles - alternate versions of a gene
genotype - genetic makeup of an individual
phenotype - expression of the genes; i.e., appearance of the individual
Genotype = what the genes are
Phenotype = appearances of the individual
Digestion of Albumin by Pepsin
Tube 1 albumin + pepsin+ HCl
Tube 2 albumin + water + HCl
The test tubes were incubated at 370C for 20 minutes
before biuret was added.
Tube 3 water + pepsin + HCl
Tube 4 water + HCl
Since pepsin is the enzyme that d
Cell Squash Technique
1. Take a pointed forceps and pull off a root.
2. If the root is long, mark the cut-off end with a black indelible marker.
This is the end you will not use. You want the root tip; the part that
was furthest from the onion bulb.
Digestion of Starch by Amylase
Tube B-1 starch + water; then add Benedicts and boil
Tube B-2 starch + amylase, then 20 minutes at 37 0C; then add Benedicts
Tube I-1 starch + water; add iodine, do not boil
Tube I-2 starch + amylase
Analysis of Components of Food
In this lab you tested various foods for sugar, starch, protein and fat.
Benedicts test - tests for the presence of monosaccharides or some disaccharides,
both of which are sugars. Polysaccharides do not react with Benedicts
Instructions for Using the Compound Light Microscope
Use these instructions with the labeled microscope diagram in this
1. Plug the microscope cord in the outlet.
2. Turn on the light - the switch is on the right hand side of the
Extracting DNA from Onions
Purpose of lab exercise: Get DNA out of onion cells.
Obstacles to getting at the DNA are: cell wall, cell membrane and nuclear envelope, (a type of
membrane). These must be damaged in some way so the DNA can exit the cell.
Yeast and Methylene Blue
dead blue yeast cells
live clear yeast cells
Procedure: A wet mount of yeast was made. The dye, methylene blue was added and the cells
were examined microscopically.
Results: Some of the yeast were blue, others were colorless
La b 5 Diffus io n,O s m o s is a nd P la s m o ly s is
(Mo le c ule s inMo tio n)
All three phenomena involve the movement of molecules.
Diffusion: molecules move from an area of high to low concentration
Osmosis: the diffusion of water across a semi-
Identify the Stages of Mitosis for These Cells
(See below for answers)
This is a non-dividing cell. It is in interphase.
Answers: late anaphase, early prophase, metaphase, between prophase and
metaphase, telophase, telophase, prophase, anaphase, metaphase
STAGES IN MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIPS - SLIDES MADE BY STUDENTS
Note: Most of the cells you see on the slide are not in any stage of mitosis.
They are in interphase.
Muscles and Muscle Movements
Movement terms: flexion* - decreased angle at a joint
extension* - increased angle at a joint
abduction - moving away from a center line or some reference point
adduction - moving toward a center line or some reference point
hair shaft (blond)
(found on palms and soles of feet)
basal cell layer
(A Type of Anaerobic Respiration)
Procedure: A respirometer was made using a small test tube filled to the
top with yeast and a sugar solution. A larger test tube was placed over the
smaller one and the entire system was turned upside
Aerobic Respiration in Humans
The energy we require, in the form of ATP, is produced as food is broken down. Most of
our energy comes from carbohydrates. Glucose is our representative carbohydrate. This
is what happens when glucose is broken down in the p