SHABBETAI EVI (16261676), the central figure of Shabbateanism, the messianic movement
named after him.
Background of the Movement
Shabbateanism was the largest and most momentous *messianic movement in Jewish history
subsequent to the destru
Why was Nicholas conscription considered to be such a bad thing?
o Besides the cantonist system, there was also extreme conversionary pressure, and
regardless all the Jews came back as not Jewish culturally or religiously.
Even though officially they we
Jews started leaving, assimilating, or being killed in Russia, so by 1887 the population make up of
Russia was very similar to what it was reported last class5.1 million Jews, with 4.8 million of
them living in the Pale. (Check slide for numbers)
As soon as you hit the 1800s, the talk in Jewish history shifted from traditionalism to the
Haskalah, even though they were in fact taking place at the same time (Hasidim and Haskalah).
o Interesting, especially because the Hasidic movement dominated Eur
Modern Jewish History
Autumn Semester 2011
For this exam, please answer THREE of the following FOUR questions in
full essay form. Your task is to create an answer that provides a clearly
argued thesis supported by relevant information
Historically we know very little (at all) about the Baal Shem Tovhistorians need to look through
the stories and fables about him to reconstruct who he actually was.
Its also difficult to define what a Hasid issimply, it can be defined as a follower of a
Gershon Scholems magnum opus famous conjecture is the shift from kabbalah to Kabbalah
with a capital K, which now everyone understands as Lurianic Kabbalah, one that theorizes the
performance of mitzvos was an action of tikkun, fixing the misalignment of
Chmielnicki Uprisingthe question is, how bad was it for the Jews. No doubt it was bad, but the
limited sources we have from the time make it difficult to figure out how devastating it was for
the Jews at the time.
o Nathan of Hanover, wrote a Sefer calle
Continued from last time:
By 1764-65, one half to three quarters of the Jews were under noble jurisdiction.
o Majority of the people were integrated into this economical system.
Life was really good for Polish Jewry:
o They had the most autonomy theyve ha
When does modern Jewish History begin?
o Jost suggest from Frederic the Great, since he himself was Prussian and wanted to instill
Prussian pride in Jewry.
Frederic was attempting to create a modern nation state, so he was chosen.
In fact, Frederic was
The origins of Ashkenaz are mostly the Rhinelandcentral Europe.
o Because of expulsions, the Jewish presence there was contracted. But many of these
expulsions were temporary because Jews were economically important
o We think of expulsions as a medieval
To recap, the change from medieval times to modernity was caused by Jewish displacement,
from 1492-1600, beginning with the expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula.
o The choice was between being expelled or converting, giving them the status of New
During Alexander II's reign, in 1873, the populist movement began called "Narodnaya Volya," which
wasn't Communist itself, but it will eventually develop into subgroups that will become the Bulshoviks
and eventually the Communists of Russia.
Enlightened Absolutism the nations desire to integrate everyone, including the Jews, into
modern enlightened society.
Moses Mendelssohnthe most famous Maskil and because of that is largely misunderstood.
o He was frum as frum could bein fact he was criti
Besides Russia, the other two countries that annexed parts of Poland, Prussia and AustriaHungary, faced a similar issue as Russia didwhat do we do with all these non-assimilated,
Yiddish speaking Jews?
o Both of these countries were going through major m
Where Does the Modern Period
of Jewish History Begin?
MICHAEL A MEYER
THE ENDEAVOR To DIVIDF HISTORY INTo DISTINCT
and meanmgful perIods has met WIth so httle success that contemporary
htstorIans have treated the subject WIth utmost cannon Grand theo-
First Paper Assignment
Modern Jewish History Survey
In class, we have explored several different types of primary historical evidence. We have
looked at primary texts, such as memoirs, histories and writings by figures in Jewish
Modern Jewish History
15 November 2011
The Weakness of Collective Human Memory
The role of human opinion and emotions while depicting a historical event can make the
difference between night and day. Even an even
Modern Jewish History
Prof. Jess Olson
BEGINNING MODERN JEWISH HISTORY
Exodus from Germany: Frankfurt am Main
Jewish Migration to Poland
Aspects of Polish Early Modern Jewish Life
Union of Lublin of 1569
List of Terms for Map Quiz
Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania
Kingdom of France
Crown of Castille and Aragon
Kingdom of Portugal
Tsardom of Muscovy
Dominions of Brandenburg
Empire of All Russ
Moses Hess, who was at the time a largely assimilated German, atheistic Jew, but starting with
the national waking of the Jews, he reasoned that, of all people, the Jews were most deserving
of being called a Nation.
o Most importantly, they have a shared
Key Themes: the Interwar Period 1905: the Russian Revolution all the way up to the end of the
First World War, where there was a massive upheaval.
o Significant portion of Europe was in ruins.
o There was large population displacements (especially in Eas
Ottoman Jewry in the 19th Century
o After the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, where did the Sephardi Jews
o What were the political and economic factors that affected Ottoman Jewish life?
o What was the inner life of Ottoma
Anti-Judaism vs. Anti-Semitism:
Anti-Judaism is the older form of anti-Semitism, based on religious components,
irrationality/folklore, is generally malleable, and despite its age, remains persistent.
Based on the idea that that they are inherently differ
Dont buy Jew in the modern world, only history of the Jews in modern times by Lloyd Gardner and Jews
of Eastern Europe.
What is Modern Jewish History?
o Up until the 1960s, we thought of modern Jewish history as post-Enlightenment, as in
an intellectual h
Modern Jewish History
9 January 2012
Question 4 The Dominance of Zionism
The late modern era of modern Jewish history is marked by great diversity amongst all
Jews. As one moves farther along in history, the beli
Jews in Israel
There are several more waves of aliyah. The first aliyah was chibat zion 1880s,
the second aliyah jewish socialists 1914, third aliyah was eastern Europe Jews
1919-1920 they have a socialist bend also, 4th aliyah mid 1920s from Poland,
Now we are talking about the Russian revolution and the Soviet Union. Russia
was the last country in Europe to emancipate the Jews (under the tsars it doesnt
happen). In February 1917, Russia has been in war, there are bread riots in St