Required Purchase - Chemistry: A Molecular Approach by Tro: Second Edition
-Check ANGEL constantly for updates, syllabus, etc.
-Atoms: The smallest piece of matter that has the characteristics of that type of matterthe
Chemical BondsReal Physical Properties
Bond Energy: How much energy it takes to pull a bond apart, ex. Cl2 (g) 2Cl (g), H = +243 kJ, the
change in enthalpy is the bond strength.
Bonds energies are always positive.
This is mainly done with covalent bonds,
Chapter 5: Gas Laws
If you have a gas trapped in a container, the floating molecules will begin to bounce against the
sides and create a force. And this force being applied over a certain area is called PRESSURE.
What they used to do was take a curved tub
Most bonds are between perfectly shared and perfectly not shared. In this middle ground you
get a dipole, where the electron spends more time around one atom than the other. Ex. HF, the F
draws the electron more than the H, so it spends more time around
2 Metals bonding is called metallic bonding the electrons here are pooled which makes them
such good conductors
-also transition metals, but we wont cover that now.
Lewis dot structure: used to show bonding through diagramseach dot around the sy
Chapter 7: The Quantum Mechanical Model of thtom
Three basic properties of a wave: Its maximum intensity (the height), or the amplitude, the
distance between two peaks or two troughs, or the wavelength , and how often it repeats itself,
or the frequency (
Solids can be put into two groups, soluble and insoluble. Soluble will break down in water and
insoluble will not.
Solubles tend to be more stable with neutral charges, ex. NaCl. And water has an inexplicable
way to break it down.
Water is actually an in
CHAPTER 4: STOICHIOMETRY
STOICHIOMETRY is the same thing as balancing equations: the science of discovering how much
of each atom or molecule is required to react with other atoms to produce the proper amount of
Ex. From the balanced equation of
Molecular chemical names: the first part will be a numerical prefix, then the first element, then
another numerical prefix and the second element name, and then ide
-prefix/1st element/prefix/2nd element-ide.
-ex. NO2= mono/nitrogen/di/ox-ide
-ex. 2: N2O
Some elements are molecular, meaning they are naturally found with multiple atoms
-could be diatomic, meaning the atom naturally shares its electrons with one other to make a
molecule with two atoms, such as O2, N2, etc (mostly to the right of the column
Mendeleev , in 1869, organized the elements based on their weight, and began to notice
patterns in their properties.
-for example, starting from lithium, periodically would find very violent reactors, and the one
before it is very gaseous
Law of conservation of mass: within a controlled environment, despite chemical changes, the
mass of all matter remains the same.
Law of Definite Proportions: That all pure compounds have a consistent proportion of
-at the time, we
CHAPTER 1: CONTINUED
SI UNITS: By length, the standard unit is a Meter, which is a little longer than a yard.
MassSI standard unit is a kilogram, shortened to a kg
mass is consistent, even when being moved around its mass stays the same
different than wei
Kinetic Molecular model: that all the molecules are jumping around inside. Assumes that the
particles have negligibly small sizes. Even if you add them up take up lmaaseh no volume.
-we also assume that the kinetic energy is proportional to the temepratu