Chemistry Lab Report #1
1) We were not asked to calculate the average error in our measurements for the circumference of a
beaker because we were not given the actual value of the circumference of the beaker. Without the
actual value, you cant find the er
Chemistry post lab #2
Purpose: the purpose of our experiment is to figure out the empirical formula of a compound
containing copper and chlorine.
1) Put on departmentally approved eye protection as aqueous copper chloride is toxi
Post Lab #3
Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to observe and record chemical reactions through
various kinds of experiments using many different substances.
1) Put on departmentally approved eye protection and gloves as the substances
Post lab #4
Purpose: determine the percent sodium hypochlorite in a commercial bleaching solution while
becoming familiar with many different volume measurement utensils such as burets, pipets and
Procedure: 1) Make sure
Chemistry lab report #2
1 As copper chloride solution is extremely toxic the student must wash his hands
thoroughly before proceeding with the experiment.
Spilling the copper chloride will cause his data to be skewed and could possibly caus
Chemistry Pre lab #3
1) Part 1 of the procedure should not be done near any Bunsen burner flames as the gas
produced by the reaction of Mg and HCl solution is flammable.
2) It is necessary to perform the reaction of Fe with S8 solution under a fume hood
Pre lab #4
1) 6M of HCl solution is extremely hazardous as it is toxic and corrosive, commercial
bleaching solution is hazardous as well due to its corrosiveness. These solutions must be
handled with care and with the proper equipment, one must also be we
Section 9.6 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
A limitation of Lewis theory is that it appears that the shared electrons are equally shared, while
this is not the case. Ex. HF.
-it seems like the electrons should be shared, but experimental data shows th
10.6 Valence Bond Theory: Orbital Overlap as a Chemical Bond
VALENCE BOND THEORY: in this theory, electrons reside in quantum-mechanical orbitals
localized on individual atoms. Sometimes these orbitals are the standard s, p, d, and f orbitals,
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory: based on the idea that electron groups
which we define as lone pairs, single bonds, multiple bonds, and even single electronsrepel
one another through coulombic forces.
According to this theory, the r
Chapter 9: Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory
Lewis Theory: a bonding model where valence electrons are represented as dots, and we draw
Lewis electron-dot structures (or Lewis Structures) to depict molecules. These can determine
whether a set of atoms will
Chapter 8: Electron Configurations
Periodic property: One that is predictable based on an elements position within the periodic
Electron configuration: shows the particular orbitals that are occupied for that atom. Ex. check
out the ground statelow
Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom: A model that explains how electrons exist in atoms
and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties of elements.
Wave-Particle Duality of light
Section 7.5: Quantum Mechanics and the Atom
Since velocity and energy are directly related (.5mv^2), then position and energy are
The energy of an electron determines many properties of an element, for example if it will form
Chapter 6: Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry is the study of the relationships between chemistry and energy.
Simple definition of heat: what you feel when you touch something that is warmer than your
hand. Or in general, the size of the temperature increase
Section 6.6 Enthalpy: The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure
Enthalpy: the enthalpy (H) of a system is the sum of its internal energy and the product of its
pressure and volume, H = E + PV. Enthalpy is a state function.
-the change i
Section 4.5: Types of Aqueous Solutions and Solubility
How do things dissolve in water? For example salt, NaCl, has a cation (Na) and an anion (Cl)
which attract. However the water molecules each have an Oxygen, which is electron rich giving it
Chapter 5, Section 5.5 (everything before that is just: PV = nRT, R = 0.08206, and P is measured in atm, V
in L, n in moles, and T in K)
The volume occupied by one mole of a substance is its MOLAR VOLUME. For gases, we often
specify the molar volume under
CHAPTER 4! Stoichiometry:
Stoichiometry: looking at the balanced equation of a reaction to determine the numerical
relationships between chemical amounts.
Also, based on stoichiometry, if one is given the mass of one reagent in a chemical reaction, he
Metals are on the lower left side and middle of the periodic table and share similar qualities, for
instance are good conductors of heat, are malleable, generally shiny, and TEND TO LOSE
ELECTRONS when undergoing chemical changes.
Nonmetals are in the up
Physical Changes: changes that alter only state or appearance, but not compostion, ex. Boiling of
Chemical Changes: changes that alter the composition of matter, ex. Rusting.
Physical Property: a property a substance displays without changing its
Atoms and molecules determine how matter behaves.
Atoms are the submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of
Molecules are two or more atoms joined in a specific geometrical arrangement.
Carbon monoxide is
Honors Chemistry II Exam ll Prof. Maohczynski
100 Points Total
1. Consider the following temperature-composition phase diagram for a system
made of two components, A and B. _ ,
Q 5", _‘E~trt,-'r L115)? " T ,( ‘5- r “w , ml