. Almost all of the media outlets in Iran are state-owned or subject
to authority monitoring. Outlets such as books, movies and music
albums must be approved by the Ministry of Ershad before being
released to the public.
Most of the newspapers published i
cities of Tehran, Isfahan, Ahvaz, and Qom. The listed populations
are from the 2006/07 (1385 AP) census.[not in citation given]
Tehran, with a population of around 8.1 million (2011 census), is
the capital and largest city in Iran. It is an economica
Achaemenid Conquest of Babylonia. Although many left in the
wake of the establishment of the State of Israel and the 1979
Revolution, around 8,756 Jews remain in Iran, according to the
latest census. Iran has the largest Jewish population in the
tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.
by 2010 is to be reached by bringing on line new gas-fired
plants and by adding hydroelectric, and nuclear power generating
capacity. Irans first nuclear power plant at Bushehr went online in
opened the first movie theater in Tehran. After him, several
others like Russi Khan, Ardeshir Khan, and Ali Vakili tried to
establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Until the early 1930s,
there were around 15 cinema theaters in Tehran and 11 in other
Bronze Age, Iran was home to
Eventual conflict on the western borders began with the Ionian
Revolt which erupted into the Greco-Persian Wars, and continued
through the first half of the 5th century BC, and ended with the
were overshadowed by the Roman-Per
The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed
by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving lay
people. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the
regular judicial framework and is accountable only
population, and is the second language for most of the remaining
, Mandeans, Yezidis, Yarsanis, and Zoroastrians.
Judaism has a long history in Iran, dating back to the
Saint Thaddeus Monastery
Saint Stepanos Monastery
the Zand Dynasty came to power in 1750, bringing a period of
relative peace and prosperity.
The geopolitical reach of the Zand Dynasty was limited, compared
to its preceding dynasties. Many of the Iranian territories in the
Caucasus gained de fac
636,372 sq mi). Iran lies between latitudes 24 and 40 N, and
longitudes 44 and 64 E. Its borders are withAzerbaijan (611 km
or 380 mi, with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave, 179 km or 111 mi)
and Armenia (35 km or 22 mi) to the north-west; the Caspia
Iran is also home to one of the largest jewel collections in the
Main articles: Iranian architecture and Persian gardens
The history of Iranian architecture goes back to the 7th millennium
BC. Iranians were among the first to
Ethnicities and religions in Iran.
Other non-governmental estimations regarding the groups other
than the Persians and Azerbaijanis roughly congruate with the
World Factbook and the Library of Congress. However, many
scholarly and organisational estimatio
output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.
questions and thoughts expressed by Zarathustra, and developed
in Zoroastrian schools of the Achaemenid Era.
The earliest tenets of Zoroastrian schools are part of the extant
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state
ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture,
and small-scale private trading and service ventures. In 2014,
GDP was $404.1 billion ($1.334 trillion at PPP), or
of the ancient Persians, soon came to be known as Persis.
Persians were present in the region since the 9th century BC, and
became rulers of a large empire under the reign of
the Achaemenid Dynasty in the 6th century BC. The ruins
ofPersepolis and Pasarga
on the Iranian online store of Digikala, which has around 750,000
visitors per day and more than 2.3 million subscribers. Digikala
is the most visited online store in the Middle East, and ranks 4th
among the most visited websites in Iran.
Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had
become a famous performing scene for known international artists
and troupes, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to
function as the national stage for opera and ballet. Opened on
Achaemenid king, Artashata (336330 BC), Achaemenid singing
girls were captured by the Macedonian general, Parmenion.
Under the Parthian Empire, a type of epic music was taught to
youth, depicting the national epics and myths which were later
crimes against national security. The decisions of the
revolutionary courts are final and cannot be
in the region and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with
developing and non-aligned countries.
Iranian FM M. Javad Zarif shaking hands with the U
In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and
Biophysics is a UNESCO chair in biology. In late 2006,Iranian
scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear
transfer, at the Royan Research Center in Tehran.
Iran has three official calendar systems, including the Solar
calendar as the main, the Gregorian calendar for international and
Christian events, and the Lunar calendar for Islamic Mehrgn: An
autumn festival, in honor of Mithra, celebrated on Mehr 16
nuclear weapon until 2013.
As of 2009, Iran maintains diplomatic relations with 99 members
of the United Nations
Iran could mobilize "up to one million men". This would be among
the largest troop mobilizations in the world. In 2007, Iran's
of Iranian films in prestigious international festivals, such as
the Cannes Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, and the Berlin
International Film Festival, attracted world attention to Iranian
masterpieces. In 2006, six Iranian films, of six dif
.[not in citation given] Most
290 members elected for four-year terms. It drafts legislation,
ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All
parliamentary candidates and all legislation from the assembly
must be approved
Athenaeus of Naucratis states that, by the time of the last
Qajar Era. It was led to major developments in the 1950s, by
the emergence of stars such as Viguen, who was referred to as
the king of Persian pop and jazz. The 1970s is known as a
States Embassy and took the embassy with 52 personnel and
citizens hostage, after the United States refused to return
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran to face trial in the court of the
new regime and all but certain execution. Attempts by the Jimmy
of Gulistan and Turkmenchay. The area to the north of the
river Aras, among which the contemporary Republic of
Azerbaijan, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Armenia, were
Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course
of the 19th
followed, which particularly resulted in the dissolution of both
puppet states, and the withdrawal of the Soviets.
Mohammad Mosaddegh, Iranian democracy advocate and
deposed Prime Minister.
In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh was elected as the prime
biopharmaceutical company ofAryoGen.
The majority of the population speak Persian, which is also
in Iran, the Persians and Azerbaijanis. The following percentages
are according to the CIA's World Factbook: 53% Persian,
16% Azerbaijani Turkish, 10%Kurdish,
Safavid Era peaked in the reign of Abbas the Great, 15871629,
surpassing their Ottoman archrivals in strength, and making
the empire a leading hub in Western Eurasia for the sciences and
arts. The Safavid Era saw the start of mass integration
Following the fracture of the Mongol Empire in 1256, Hulagu
Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, established the Ilkhanate in
Iran. In 1370, yet another conqueror,Timur, followed the example
of Hulagu, establishing the Timurid Empire which lasted for
Persian are sporadically spoken throughout regions from China to
Syria and Russia, though mainly in the Iranian Plateau.
Iran has a number of famous poets; most
notably Rumi, Ferdowsi, Hafez, Saadi Shirazi, Khayym NeyShapuri, and Nez
The main national annual of Iran is Nowruz, an ancient tradition
celebrated on 21 March to mark the beginning of spring and
the New Year of Iran. It is enjoyed by people with different
religions, but is a holiday for Zoroastrians. It was registere
e-commerce takes place
of August 2016).
Volleyball is the second most popular sport in Iran.
The men's national team is currently the strongest team in
Asia, having won the 2011 and 2013 Asian Volleyball
Championships, and rank 8th in the
center of the world at the time, survived after the invasion, but
became known as an Islamic institute thereafter.
, and so earlier attempts of Arabization never succeeded in Iran.
The Iranian Shuubiyah movement became a catalyst for Iranians