Membrane Lipids & Steroids
(Glycerol phosphate acyltransferase)
Occurs in ER or
outer mitochondrial membrane
ATP & phosphoryl transfer
Common metabolic motifs
Coenzymes & vitamins
100 central molecules
Reaction types small number
Amino Acid Biosynthesis
Amino Acid Biosynthesis
Need N and C-skeleton
Amino group + Carbon skeleton
75% of N is from atmosphere (N2)
Made into ammonia (NH3)
Ammonium ion (NH4+)
NH3 incorporated into amino acid
Integration of Metabolism
What you already know:
1. ATP = universal energy currency
high phosphoryl-transfer potential
coupling of reactions
2. ATP made by oxidation of fuel molecules
fuel = glucose
All have same biochemistry
(macromolecules, metabolites, metabolism)
What is Biochemistry?
The chemistry of b
Importance of water
Most abundant molecule in living
60-90% of mass
Occurs between two molecules each
containing H bonded to an
electronegative atom (e.g. N, O)
15 February 2017
Helen Keller is an iconic worldwide celebrity, renowned social activist, writer and a
radical thinker, who fought through disability and stood up for the disabled. An early child
What is the Physical Basis of Inheritance?
Inheritance is the process by which the
characteristics of individuals are passed to
A gene is a unit of heredity that encodes
information for the form of a particular
characteristic, or genetic t
How Does Energy Flow
in Chemical Reactions?
Chemical reactions are processes that
form or break chemical bonds between
Chemical reactions convert reactants to
Reactions categorized as exergonic or
Intracellular activity from one cell division to
the next is the cell cycle
Some activities involve growth (enlargement) of
Some activities involve duplication of genetic
material & cell division (reproduction)
How Are Genes and Proteins Related?
DNA contains the molecular blueprint of
Proteins are the molecular workers of the
Information in genes must be linked to the
proteins that run the cell
What molecule links DNA with protein?
DNA in euk
DNA Is Composed of Nucleotides
Each nucleotide has 3 components:
1. Phosphate group
2. Deoxyribose sugar
3. Base (1 of 4; nitrogen-containing)
DNA is a Double Helix
DNA is made of 2 strands of nu
Chapters 8 + 9
Summary of glucose metabolism
*(ATP yield depends on cell type)
Essentials of glycolysis: Phase 1
Essentials of glycolysis: Phase 2
What is the NET yield of ATP?
Quiz 1 will cover Chap. 3 + Chap. 5
FORMATION of biological POLYMERS
Water is REMOVED to FORM a bond
BREAKDOWN of biological POLYMERS
Water is ADDED to BREAK a bond
How Do Cells Obtain Energy?
Photosynthetic organisms capture the energy of
sunlight and store it in the form of glucose
Overall equation for photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
Glucose is a key energy-storing molecule
Nearly all cells
What is Photosynthesis?
Early cells evolved ability to perform
photosynthesis ~ 2 billion yrs. ago
How did photosynthesis alter Earths atmosphere?
Photosynthesis = capture sunlight
energy & convert it to chemical energy
Most forms of life on Earth dep
Polynucleotide phosphorylase was used to randomly assemble nucleotides, this provided for
the assembly of RNA homo and heteropolymers, which when placed in the cell-free protein
synthesizing system providing products for analysis. Additionally, the trip
Four major characteristics needed for molecule to serve as genetic material
- Storage of information
- Expression of information
- Variation by mutation
Central dogma of molecular genetics is made up of two processes (Gene expression)
Precourse Survey on Bb extended until 11 PM Thur,
Lab: Mon, Jan 23 lab will do Ch: 2, 3, & part of Ch 1.
Tue lab is meeting today!
Quiz 1 in LAB will be set up as a Bb assignment.
All other quizzes will be taken in lab!