Lect 17 review
1. What two technological advances are responsible for the explosion of indo-european
speakers throughout Eurasia?
-The domestication of the horse, and the invention of the wheel and cart
2. What are five important traits of emerging civili
Economic decisions and subsistence patterns
Why do societies show so many different patterns of making a living? hunting, fishing, trapping, collecting wild plants, farming, herding,
manufacture and trade. And subspecializations hunting large mammals
Methods to study the past.
In order to study the past we make assumptions about uniformitarianism.
Laws of physics, chemistry and biology that apply now, applied in the past
Eg. What is the easiest way to know whether apples fell to the earth in the past?
Mating and Marriage
Marriage- After obtaining resources and surviving, the next most important fitness
challenge is finding a mate.
Although legal and formal agreements are found only in some societies, the pattern we
call marriage is easily recognized
Religion and the Supernatural
Another very important human universal pattern which is related to our
propensity for cultural transmission is belief in the supernatural.
Why do people believe in supernatural powers and why there is so much
Although polygyny appears to benefit males it should be remembered
that for every polygynous man there are several men who obtain no wife.
Most boys in Arizona polygamous communities are expelled during adolescence. A few
remain in church favor and acquir
Lect 15 review.
1. What are three useful features of mitochondrial DNA?
2. What are the differences in genetic diversity within and between populations
for chimps and humans? What does this indicate?
3. About how long ago did the woman that contributed th
1. When do first primates first appear in the fossil record. What major feeding
niche first emerged at that time?
2. At what time period do the first anthropoids appear in the fossil record?
3. What time period do the first apes show up in the
HUMAN ORIGINS- AN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY
I. Primates have their origins at the end of the Cretaceous period, which
ended about 65 million years ago (mya). At the end of this period occurred the
great dinosaur extinctions, the emergence of flowering and frui
Lecture 12 Emergence of Homo.
During the time period from 3 mya to 2 mya there were 4 to 6 different species of
Hominins in Africa. In some places two or three species lived in the same place at the
same time. The hominin phylogenetic tree became a bush w
Later Evolution of Homo
THE APPEARANCE OF ARCHAIC HOMO SAPIENS. Beginning around 600,000400,000 years ago, there was a transition from H. ergaster to H. heidelbergensis, There
is no evidence that this transition ever happened in Asia. The cutoff po
Lect 14 review.
0. What are the main features of climate in the late Pleistocene?
0. Where and when are the first fossil Homo sapiens found?
1. What are the four major types of changes that constitute behavioral
2. What are Mode 4 and Mode 5 tec
Lect16 The spread of Homo sapiens around the world. Genetic structure
and ancestry based genetic variation.
100,000 years ago there were robust Homo erectus like hominins in Asia,
Neanderthals in Europe and large brained but more gracile AMH in Africa. By
Lect 16 Rise of Civilization
Before the first Civilizations emerged most of Eurasia had already been
populated by Indo-European language speakers who spread originally from
central Turkey about 7 ka bringing their superior economy based on grain farming
1. What does decreasing tooth size in genus Homo indicate?
2. What are six important physical traits of H. erectus and the implications of
3. When did H. heidelbergensis emerge, and what is the brain size of that fossil
type? What behavio
Lect 14 Emergence of Human Uniqueness
Climate changes were quite drastic in the later Pleistocene. At this time there
were alternating glacial (cold) and interglacial (warm) periods about every 100
ka, but with lots of variability on much smaller time sca
Review exam 2, ASB 194
1. How does childhood growth and age of sexual maturity differ between chimps
2. What is mean expected adult lifespan (after age 15) for chimps and humans?
3. Understand how to read a survival curve.
4. What is
2 goals sci-anthro=accurate description of the range of variation, and explanation through testing hypotheses for observed patterns 1) Biological anthropology The study
of primate behavior and biology and the study of hominin evolution. This includes anth
Culture is information acquired by social learning that is incorporated
into behavior generating processes to produce patterns that are shared
by a group of individuals.
Cultural variants are types of information transmitted through social
Cooperation and helping is common both in simple and complex human
societies. Studies in experimental economics show that people often chose
between alternative behaviors by taking into account the payoffs to others as
well as themselves [othe
Humans are outliers: combination of non-unique traits, which arose through nonunique processes but produced a unique outcome = spectacular anomaly
Would be immediately singled out by any extraterrestrial visitor to earth!
Recent adaptation and drift among partially isolated populations led to
racial differences. Are these differences biologically important?
What is Race?
Race -a subset of a species (one or more breeding
populations) partially genetical
Ancestral Human Diet:
Foods That Couldnt Have Been Eaten
Cereal grains which are
the seeds of grasses
(Gramineae) in their wild
2. Difficult to harvest
3. Minimally digestible
without (a) grinding to
break down cell walls (b
The spread of Homo sapiens
100,000 years ago there were H. erectus/heidelbergensis
in Asia, Neanderthals in Europe and large brained but more
gracile AMH in Africa.
By about 30,000 years ago only the gracile, large-brained
Evidence from the
Lecture 20 Social Stratification and Sex Roles.
In modern India, some people live in palaces and never cook, clean
house, or wash their own clothes. They belong to a priveledged social
group, whose membership is determined by birth (caste).
Others live in
C) Yellow River, China 4,200 bp
1) Gradual emergence of feudal states with peasant and noble class.
2) Complicated irrigation, millet farming and pig raising in the early years.
Later rice farming, cattle herding, and horses dominate.
3) Full blown imperi
Mismatch between design and environment
The lives of hunter-gatherers are more similar to those of our ancestors,
than are the lives of modern people. Because our morphology,
physiology, and behavior are adapted to past challenges, there may be a
Sometime, in the pleistocene, our ancestors passed an important threshold
from signaling to full blown language with grammar and syntax. Biologists
consider this the last major evolutionary transition on earth (Maynard Smith and
Szathmary 1995) O
KINSHIP, RESIDENCE AND DESCENT
Human social groups are usually organized around relationships of
kinship- especially in pre-state societies. Only in recent postindustrial societies has kinship become less important as the organizing
feature of society.
Human Life History
Why do people eat unhealthy foods?
Why dont they exercise?
Even M.D.s dont follow the medical advice that
they know is based on scientific evidence.
Many things will shorten your lifespan (on
average) yet many people do them- drugs, ris