2 goals sci-anthro=accurate description of the range of variation, and explanation through testing hypotheses for observed patterns 1) Biological anthropology The study of
primate behavior and biology and the study of hominin evolution. This includes anth
2 goals sci-anthro=accurate description of the range of variation, and explanation through testing hypotheses for observed patterns 1) Biological anthropology The study
of primate behavior and biology and the study of hominin evolution. This includes anth
Lect 17 review
1. What two technological advances are responsible for the explosion of indo-european
speakers throughout Eurasia?
-The domestication of the horse, and the invention of the wheel and cart
2. What are five important traits of emerging civili
Lecture 9 Life History
1. How does childhood growth and age of
sexual maturity differ between chimps and
humans? Chimps start reproducing at 14-15.
Children take longer to get there adult body
2. What is mean expected adult lifespan (after
age 15) for chi
Lecture 12 Emergence of Homo.
During the time period from 3 mya to 2 mya there were 4 to 6 different species of
Hominins in Africa. In some places two or three species lived in the same place at the
same time. The hominin phylogenetic tree became a bush w
HUMAN ORIGINS- AN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY
I. Primates have their origins at the end of the Cretaceous period, which
ended about 65 million years ago (mya). At the end of this period occurred the
great dinosaur extinctions, the emergence of flowering and frui
1. When do first primates first appear in the fossil record. What major feeding
niche first emerged at that time?
2. At what time period do the first anthropoids appear in the fossil record?
3. What time period do the first apes show up in the
Lect 15 review.
1. What are three useful features of mitochondrial DNA?
2. What are the differences in genetic diversity within and between populations
for chimps and humans? What does this indicate?
3. About how long ago did the woman that contributed th
Disease Transmission and Ro
An important concept in infectious disease transmission is the so-called
transmission chain. A transmission chain is a sequence of transmission
events from the origin to the secondary case. In this figure, one can see a
Biology Lecture Notes Thursday 1/12/2016 1
Biological science is based upon two broad, unifying principles.
The Cell theory describes the uniformity and persistence of organisms over
The theory of evolution by natural selection describes the implica
Although polygyny appears to benefit males it should be remembered
that for every polygynous man there are several men who obtain no wife.
Most boys in Arizona polygamous communities are expelled during adolescence. A few
remain in church favor and acquir
Religion and the Supernatural
Another very important human universal pattern which is related to our
propensity for cultural transmission is belief in the supernatural.
Why do people believe in supernatural powers and why there is so much
Later Evolution of Homo
THE APPEARANCE OF ARCHAIC HOMO SAPIENS. Beginning around 600,000400,000 years ago, there was a transition from H. ergaster to H. heidelbergensis, There
is no evidence that this transition ever happened in Asia. The cutoff po
Lect 14 review.
0. What are the main features of climate in the late Pleistocene?
0. Where and when are the first fossil Homo sapiens found?
1. What are the four major types of changes that constitute behavioral
2. What are Mode 4 and Mode 5 tec
1. What is culture. Information acquired by social learning
that is incorportated into behavior generating processes to
produce patterns that are shared by a group of individuals.
What is a cultural variant? Types of information transmitted
ASB 101 Ethnographic Film Assignment
(1)Zersenay Alemseged while in Ethiopia found the skull and cheekbone along with other
body parts of a baby. After his discovery of the baby he decided to name her Salam. (2)
Lect16 The spread of Homo sapiens around the world. Genetic structure
and ancestry based genetic variation.
100,000 years ago there were robust Homo erectus like hominins in Asia,
Neanderthals in Europe and large brained but more gracile AMH in Africa. By
Review exam 2, ASB 194
1. How does childhood growth and age of sexual maturity differ between chimps
2. What is mean expected adult lifespan (after age 15) for chimps and humans?
3. Understand how to read a survival curve.
4. What is
Lect 14 Emergence of Human Uniqueness
Climate changes were quite drastic in the later Pleistocene. At this time there
were alternating glacial (cold) and interglacial (warm) periods about every 100
ka, but with lots of variability on much smaller time sca
1. What does decreasing tooth size in genus Homo indicate?
2. What are six important physical traits of H. erectus and the implications of
3. When did H. heidelbergensis emerge, and what is the brain size of that fossil
type? What behavio
Lect 16 Rise of Civilization
Before the first Civilizations emerged most of Eurasia had already been
populated by Indo-European language speakers who spread originally from
central Turkey about 7 ka bringing their superior economy based on grain farming
Ethnographic Film Assignment
1. What does Weyak do so that women will know that it is safe to go work in their gardens each
Weyak takes his bow and arrows and takes them to the watch tower. Crossing the dangerous
Mating and Marriage
Marriage- After obtaining resources and surviving, the next most important fitness
challenge is finding a mate.
Although legal and formal agreements are found only in some societies, the pattern we
call marriage is easily recognized
Methods to study the past.
In order to study the past we make assumptions about uniformitarianism.
Laws of physics, chemistry and biology that apply now, applied in the past
Eg. What is the easiest way to know whether apples fell to the earth in the past?
Before states and cities, Eurasia was populated by Indo-European
language speakers who spread from central Turkey about 7,000 bp
bringing a superior economy based on grain farming and domestic animals.
A second expansion of Indo-European spea
Human Life History
Why do people eat unhealthy foods?
Why dont they exercise?
Even M.D.s dont follow the medical advice that
they know is based on scientific evidence.
Many things will shorten your lifespan (on
average) yet many people do them- drugs, ris
KINSHIP, RESIDENCE AND DESCENT
Human social groups are usually organized around relationships of
kinship- especially in pre-state societies. Only in recent postindustrial societies has kinship become less important as the organizing
feature of society.
Sometime, in the pleistocene, our ancestors passed an important threshold
from signaling to full blown language with grammar and syntax. Biologists
consider this the last major evolutionary transition on earth (Maynard Smith and
Szathmary 1995) O
Mismatch between design and environment
The lives of hunter-gatherers are more similar to those of our ancestors,
than are the lives of modern people. Because our morphology,
physiology, and behavior are adapted to past challenges, there may be a
C) Yellow River, China 4,200 bp
1) Gradual emergence of feudal states with peasant and noble class.
2) Complicated irrigation, millet farming and pig raising in the early years.
Later rice farming, cattle herding, and horses dominate.
3) Full blown imperi