Solar radiation - the major source of energy for almost
all environmental flows
Radiation = electromagnetic waves
Different types of heat transfer:
Heat conduction by molecular diffusion (no large-scale transport
of mass is needed; think the change of tem
Effects of moisture on static stability & convection
Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the
temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature for condensation, phase
change may occur Latent hea
Radiative equilibrium and vertical temperature profile
Recap: Idealized atmosphere that is transparent to shortwave radiation but absorbing
of longwave radiation Temperature increases downward; surface is the warmest
In this case, the atmosphere is always
Governing equations of fluid dynamics under the influence of Earth rotation
(Navier-Stokes Equations in rotating frame)
Recap:
From kinematic consideration,
d vn
d v
i
r
= rot 2 v ,
rot
d t in
d t r ot
(1)
where "in" and "rot" denote the inertial (absol
Adiabatic process and potential temperature
Adiabatic process in liquid fluid (~ incompressible) vs. the atmosphere (compressible)
Liquid: Consider a 2-layer fluid; A parcel of fluid is carved out of the lower layer
and lifted adiabatically to the upper l
Potential temperature and static stability
The atmosphere
Stratified in the vertical; T(z), p(z), (z);
Pressure decreases with height (hydrostatic)
Ideal gas: = p/RT
As an air parcel is adiabatically lifted (from A to B) to a new height,
all of its (, p,T
Vertical structure of the atmosphere - Hydrostatic balance
Recap:
z
Ozone layer
Stratosphere
Tropopause
Troposphere
Surface
Stable; Convection
stops at tropopause
Radiative equilibrium
profile could be unstable;
convection restores it
to stability (or n
Prob 1 Part (b) Next 3 pages. (Thanks to Manuel Gale)
Surface temperature
Temperature as a function of latitude & pressure
Potential temperature as a function of latitude and pressure
Prob 2
Prob 3
Prob 4
Solar radiation - the major source of energy for almost
all environmental flows
Radiation = electromagnetic waves
Different types of heat transfer:
Heat conduction by molecular diffusion (no large-scale transport
of mass is needed; think the change of tem
Vertical structure of the atmosphere - Hydrostatic balance
Recap:
z
Ozone layer
Stratosphere
Tropopause
Troposphere
Surface
Stable; Convection
stops at tropopause
Radiative equilibrium
profile could be unstable;
convection restores it
to stability (or n
Adiabatic process and potential temperature
Adiabatic process in liquid fluid (~ incompressible) vs. the atmosphere (compressible)
Liquid: Consider a 2-layer fluid; A parcel of fluid is carved out of the lower layer
and lifted adiabatically to the upper l
Effects of moisture on static stability & convection
Dry vs. "moist" air parcel: Lifting of an air parcel leads to adiabatic cooling. If the
temperature of the parcel falls below the critical temperature for condensation, phase
change may occur Latent hea