Glucose is a hexose, 6 carbons, each
pyruvate has 3 carbons, conserving
the 6 carbons
!glucose 2 pyruvate!
with generation of ATP (2, in this case)!
These reactions are the way in which carbohydrate is
broken down into
Much of this is review or already covered
during the last semester. The book covers
it quite well. I will go over this very briey
Autotrophs can use inorganic carbon (CO2)
as their source of carbon.!
These are oxidized polyhydroxy alcohols. "
They all have the general formula (CH2O)n "
(n = # of carbons)."
Glycerol can be considered the parent
compound, although it is not a carbohydrate. !
It can be oxidized to !
Fatty Acid Metabolism!
Besides being components of cellular
membranes, fatty acids also serve as an
excellent energy reservoir. !
For this purpose, they are often packaged as
When they are oxidized, they can li
Fatty acid biosynthesis!
The overall reaction for synthesis of palmitate is:"
8 acetyl-CoA "
+ 7 ATP + 14 NADPH + 14 H+
! CH3(CH2)14CO2- "
!+ 7 ADP + 7 Pi + 14 NADP+ + 7 H2O!
As you saw in carbohydrate synthesis!
Fatty acid synthesis is not the re
Amino Acid Oxidation!
Animals are unable to convert fatty acids into
During times of starvation, amino acids are used
to replenish TCA cycle intermediates and as
precursors for gluconeogenesis. !
In addition, organisms with a diet high
Catalyzes the overall reaction:!
!pyruvate + CoA + NAD+ !
! acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH !
Sometime referred to as a "multi-vitamin
pill", because of all of the cofactors it
utilizes. This is a good time to discuss
-She also had the students engaged in the topic from the very beginning. She started off having the topic relate back to the, and then continued going
over their relationship to the topics at hand.
-Students were willing to participate and she didnt have
Ion gradients & Transporters!
By now, you should be familiar with the concept
that electrochemical gradients represent energy in
biological systems !
they take energy to make!
they can be used to do work (e.g. ATP synthase).!
In general, ions and pol
Amino Acid Synthesis!
You can make sense of amino acid
synthesis, if you approach it as a synthetic
1. Examine starting and ending points!
Starting point is usually a glycolysis/TCA
Ending point is usually an -keto acid, righ
Lipids and Membranes!
Long chain carboxylic acids usually with even number of
carbons (synthesized by addition of 2-C units). !
These can be fully saturated:"
!(x = even #)"
The most common:!
palmitic acid =
The Calvin cycle!
Photosynthesis might be thought of as the
reverse of the glycolysis/TCA cycle:"
6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2!
G' = +686 kcal/mole!
Obviously this must be coupled to favorable
18 ATP 18 ADP + 18 Pi!
12 NADPH 12 NAD+!