pH = log[H3O+]
pH > 7.00
pH = 7.00
pH < 7.00
A sample solution
with pH 5.00
Addition of 1 mL of strong acid
changes the pH by several units
Wide Range of Reaction Rates
A faster reaction
A slower reaction
Factors That Affect Reaction Rate
Collision of particles.
Physical state of the reactants.
Concentration of reactants.
Temperature of the reactio
A spontaneous process is one that occurs without a
continuous input of energy from outside the system.
A non-spontaneous process occurs only if the
surroundings continuously supply ene
The Equilibrium State
All reactions are reversible to a certain extent and under
suitable conditions will reach a state of equilibrium.
At equilibrium, the concentrations of products and
reactants no longer change because the rates of the
forward and reve
Discussion/ConclusionThe results of each trial (beaker, flask, cylinder, pipet, and buret) were relatively accurate
and precise except for the trials with the flask. In each trial for the beaker the same amount of
water was measured out. The mass for each
Discussion/ConclusionIn this experiment there were eight trials consisting of water, known Cobalt (II) Nitrate,
and unknown Cobalt Nitrate. All eight were conducted to find the amount of absorbency in
Cobalt (II) Nitrate. In trial one the cuvette consiste
The results of the first trial of the experiment were that the ball was very wet and
floppy at first. Then after sitting for a while it hardened and was able to be formed into a proper
ball shape. It was also able to bounce, however
CHM 238 GENERAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY II
CHM 238 Instructor: Dr. Smitha. Pillai (email@example.com), Office: PSH-234
Lab Coordinator: Dr. Pichaya. Trakanrungroj (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Office: PS H252 (see Blackboard for O
Julius Caesar is supposed to have used secret codes known today as Caesar cyphers. There are 26 such cyphers over the English alphabet. In the simplest, A is replaced with B, B is replaced with C, and so on, up to Z, which is replaced with A. This is call
8/27/14 - CHM113 Notes: CH.1 Continued:
Units of Measurement:
K= C+273 For temperature to Kelvin
-Example: 25 degree C + 273= 298K
-310K 273= 37 degree C
-0 C = 273K = fp/mp of water
-25 C = 298 K = Room Temperature
-37 C = 310K = Bio Temperature
100 C =
The most common form of Carbon is Carbon 12
The Periodic Table
It is divided into the metals, the non-metals and the metalloids.
Left side and Middle (Except H) are metals
- Solid at room temperature (except Hg)
Right side and
Chapter 3: 09/19/13 (Material That Will be on Exam 2)
Molar mass and Compounds:
Molar Mass is the mass (g) pf one mole of a substance
The same relationship exists between atomic mass (amu) and molar mass (g) for compounds
- 1 molecule of CO2 weighs 44.0
-Leading Zero never count in a sig. fig.
-Captive Zero always count.
-Zero at the end only count if there is a decimal.
Multiplying/dividing Same number of sig figs as least significant
Adding/Subtracting- same numbe