High Points from Neurology Lecture
The nervous system affects and is affected by all other body systems.
Myelination process proceeds in a cephalocaudal and proximodistal direction.
Anatomic & Physiologic Differences
Top Heavy: Head proportionately larg
Lack of innervations in portion of colon
Severe constipation/ fecal impaction
Failure to pass meconium as newborn during the 1st 48 hours of life
Failure to gain weight
High Points from Musculoskeletal Lecture
Children depend on the MSK system for both support and movement. Normal growth and
development depend on a well-functioning MSK system.
Except for the first year of life, INJURY is the number 1 cause of death. Ma
Infectious Diseases in Children
Types of isolation precautions
Transmission based precautions
MRSA, herpes simplex, scabies, varicella, respiratory syncytial virus
Gloves and gown before entering the room
High Points from the Preterm Infant Lecture
Preterm Born before completion of 37 weeks gestation.
Term Born between beginning of 38 weeks and the completion of 42 weeks gestation.
Post-term Born after 42 weeks
High Points from the Cardiovascular Lecture
In fetal circulation, gas exchange occurs in the placenta. The lungs are nonfunctional with very
little blood flow.
The umbilical cord carries blood with oxygen and nutrients straight to the
High Points from Gastrointestinal Lecture
Pediatric differences (slides 8-12)
Children with vomiting and/ or diarrhea dehydrate quickly. They have extracellular fluid,
which is more easily lost; body surface area & insensible fluid loss; little fluid r
High Points from Endocrine/ Metabolic Lecture
Pituitary Hypofunction (Hypopituitarism): growth hormone deficiency
Underproduction growth hormone
o Poor growth and/or short height (less than 3rd percentile on growth chart)
o Slower muscular development
High Points from Genitourinary Lecture
KNOW slides 45 (IVP), 48 (renal-bladder US), & 49 (voiding cystourethrogram) diagnostic tests
Things that are nephrotoxic or can cause renal damage:
Intravenous contrast dye
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, NSAIDs
High Points from Infant & Toddler Lecture
KNOW infantile reflexes (characteristics, when typically disappear)
KNOW slides 7-15.
KNOW infant/toddler chart.
Infancy development period with most rapid growth of all.
KNOW differences between fine motor & gr
High Points from Respiratory Lecture
Early versus Late signs of respiratory distress (KNOW slides 21-26):
Level of consciousness changes (irritability, confusion, anxiety, mild rest