1. List 3 things that can result from water scarcity in societies
Migration, decrease economic productivity, ethnic problems
2. How many liters of water a day do Americans use?
3. China can tout (advertise) that
Earths 4 spheres
o Hydrosphere: water portion
o Atmosphere: gaseous envelope
o Geosphere: solid earth
o Biosphere: plant and animal life
o Earths thin, rocky outer skin
o Oceanic crust: 7 km thick and composed of basalt
o Continental crus
o Naturally occurring, inorganic, solid substance, with orderly crystalline structure
and definite chemical composition
o Solid mass of minerals or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally
Crystallization of molten rock
o Magma h
Magma: molten rock that usually contains some crystals and varying amounts of
Lava: the erupted magma
Behavior of magma determined by:
o Dissolved gases
These control viscosity
Viscosity: a measure of
Chapter 6 and Review
Weathering: a process that involves the physical breakdown and chemical alteration of
rocks at or near the earths surface
Mechanical weathering: physical forces breaking rocks into smaller pieces
Chemical weathering: chemical transfor
Importance of sedimentary rocks
Cover 75% of Earths surface
5% of Earths outer 16km
Contain evidence of past environments
An important resource
Coal, oil, and natural gas
Origins of sedim
Creating a time scale
The Importance of a Time Scale
Rocks record geologic and evolutionary changes throughout the Earths
Without a time perspective, these events have very little meaning
Numerical Dates VS Relative Dates
The main reason that oceanic ridges are high is that they are less dense than the sea
floor away from the ridges
Oceanic lithosphere is subducted beneath continental lithosphere because oceanic
lithosphere is more dense that continental lithosphere
Exam 1 Practice Problems:
Problem 3. A distance AB is observed repeatedly using the Same equipment and procedures. For the
observed distances and pre—calculated residuals listed, calculate the following:
a. The most probable length of the line (5 points)
Chapter 5 Weathering
Terms to Remember
A horizon dark-colored soil layer that is rich in organic matter and high in
biological activity, both plant an animal. Part of topsoil layer 2
B Horizon (Zone of Accumulation) material leached downward from the E ho
Introduction to Geology
Earth Systems all interrelated
o All of the living or once living material
o Water on or near earths surface
o The solid rocky earth
o Our main focus
o Gasses that envelop the earth
GEOL 1113, Exam 3, Fall 2012 — Knierim
1. Fill out your full name (under Name) and student ID number (under Identiﬁcation Number) on two scantrons.
Left-justify all text and bubble in all letters/numbers.
Read the following questions car
Chapter 5 Review
Why does magma rise?
-mama is less dense because is hotter than rock of same composition
Felsic magmas are more viscous than basaltic magmas because they contain higher percentage silica
Why do volcano mountain s Helens explosive where as
o Forms as molten rock(magma) cool and solidifies
o Parent material of Igneous rock, forms from partial melting, above ground= lava
o Cooling of magma results in systematic arrangement of ions into orderly p
o Continental drift hypothesis 1915
Continental drift hypothesis: supercontinent consisting of all earths landmasses
o Supercontinent breaking apart 200 m years ago
Evidence to support continental drift
o Continental jigsa
September 16, 2013!
What I gained from this group project.!
What I came out of this group project knowing was a whole lot of information on
gyres. Before this project I hadn't even heard of the word gyre. Now I Know what t
75 questions. 9 will come from chapters 20 and 21 from Testing your Knowledge. all
remaining questions on the nal will be delivered directly from questions on your
previous three exams. !
Mountains and mountain bui
1. Which of the following is NOT a type of plate boundary?
2. In which scenario below would you be likely to hire a geologist to help
better understand the situation?
Geologists might be employed in all of these scena
Geologic Time- Part 1!
Trial of Time- Grand Canyon National Park!
Age of the Ocean oor- Oldest= 180 m.y!
Age of Earth= between 4.50-4.56 b.y!
James Hutton (1788) Father of Geology !
Uniformitarianism- the present is key to the past.!
Regardless of what culture one might encounter, it has always been a general credence that
women are not as physically driven of a gender as a male might be. When it comes to fighting, wrestling
On October 26th, I attended a cultural event led by Dr. Samier Abdel-Fadiel. His emphasis for his
works come from a wide variety of artwork and calligraphy. The artwork he displayed was utterly
Chapter 1 Review
Primary difference between physical and historical geology
-physical: processes that shaped Earth
-historical: understanding of origin of Earth
Important concept of geology
-earth is always changing
Huttons idea of uniformitarianism a rad
Chapter 2 Review
Oceanic ridges are higher because
-the are less dense than the seafloor away from ridges
Oceanic lithosphere is subducted beneath continental lithosphere because
-oceanic lithosphere is more dense
Why are rocks that formed in an oceanic e
Chapter 11 Review
The type of deformation associated directly with the generation of seismic waves is_.
What type of fault is the most destructive?
Wat is the relationship between the length of the fault rupture, the size of the
Chapter 10 Review Questions
The relationship between stress and strain is
That strain is the result of stress
Which of the following make it more likely that a rock will bend instead of
High confining pressure, high temperature, weak chemica
Sedimentary Rock Review
Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have been
formed from sediments deposited in a quite environment like a lake or
Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have
Why does Earth have distinct layers?
Because of density and buoyancy
What is a significant characteristic of a refracted wave?
It bends as it passes into a new layer with a different velocity
What are some significant differences between oceanic and conti
Chapter 8: Time And Geology and Geology
The Key To The Past
m: father of geology
o Geological features explained present day
0 Not mean happen at constant rate
0 “The present in the key to the past"
0 m processes/laws in past can be observed/ in