22.1 Evolution and Characteristics of Fungi
1. The 80,000 species of the kingdom Fungi are mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a
common mode of nutrition.
2. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic and consume preformed organic matter
27.1 Sexual Reproductive Strategies
A. Life Cycle Overview
1. In contrast to animals with only one multicellular stage in their life cycle, all plants have two: a
diploid and a haploid generation.
2. In flowering plants, the diploid sporop
21.1 General Biology of Protists
1. Protists are classified in the domain Eukarya (they have eukaryotic cells) and the kingdom
2. The endosymbiotic theory suggests how that eukaryotic cells arose by engulfing prokaryotic cells.
46.1 Climate and the Biosphere
1. Climate is the prevailing weather conditions in a region over time.
2. Climate is primarily dictated by temperature and rainfall which is influenced by two factors:
a. variations in solar radiation due to
25.1 Plant Nutrition and Soil
The ancient Greeks considered plants soil-eaters that converted soil into plant tissue.
The 17th Century Dutchman Jean-Baptiste Van Helmont conducted an experiment.
a. He planted a five pound young willo
26.1 Plant Hormones
One defining characteristic of life is an ability to respond to stimuli.
Adaptive organisms respond to environmental stimuli because it leads to longevity and survival of
3. Plant cells utilize signal
29.1 The Chordates
1. Chordates (phylum Chordata) are euterostomes, and have an internal skeleton, with muscles
attached to the outer surface.
A. Characteristics of Chordates
1. At some time during their life, all chordates have four basic
20.1 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
a. Are associated with a number of plant, animal, and human diseases;
b. Can only reproduce by using the metabolic machinery of the host cell;
c. Are noncellular;
d. May have a DNA or RNA genom
23.1 The Green Algal Ancestor of Plants
Plants are multicellular, photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose evolution is marked by adaptations to
a land existence.
A. Adaptation to Land
1. Living on land requires adaptations, primarily dealing w
44.1 Scope of Ecology
Ecology is the study of the interactions of organisms with other organisms and with their physical
2. Ecology studies how environmental factors determine the distribution and abundance of
19.1 Systematic Biology
1. Systematic biology (systematics) is the study of understanding the evolutionary history of
life on Earth.
2. Systematic biology uses traits to infer the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
A. The Field of
45.1 Ecology of Communities
1. A community is a group of populations that interact with one another in the same environment.
a. Communities vary in size and may have boundaries that are difficult to determine.
b. A fallen log supports a co
24.1 Organs of Flowering Plants
1. Structures of flowering plants are well adapted to varied environments, including water.
2. Flowering plants usually have a root system (the roots) and a shoot system (the stems and
3. Roots, ste
28.1 Evolution of Animals
A. Characteristics of Animals
1. Members of the kingdom Animalia are multicellular heterotrophs that ingest their food.
2. Animals are mobile and animal cells lack a cell wall.
3. Many animals have the diploid lif