MOLECULES DO NOT REACT
READILY WITH WATER AND
THE OTHER IS THAT THEY DO
READILY REACT WITH WATER.
THIS CAN DETERMINE WHAT
CAN AND CANT REACT
WHAT IS HYDROPHOBIC AND
HYDROPHILIC AND THEIR
Ligand and Voltage gated channels
Integral proteins create molecule/ion specific channels (she described these as doors to a house).
Some channels are always open
Some channels are open only to certain molecules/ions for homeostatic maintenance.
Population Genetics Problem Set #1
BIO 112 General Biology II
1. After an extensive survey of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) population in southern and
eastern Africa, Dr. Beckensnooter has found that 19% of the individuals he saw had tuf
Study Guide for Chapter 1: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
1. What is anatomy? What is physiology? How are these two fields related to one another?
o Anatomy: study of internal and external structure of the body. Physiology: function of the body.
Study Guide for Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization
1. Define the following terms:
Atom: the smallest stable unit of matter
Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass
Element: a pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind. Atoms can
Study Guide for Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization
1. Describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane. What are the different chemical
components of the membrane? What are their individual functions?
2. Complete the following table a
Study Guide for Chapter 4: Body Tissues and Membranes
1. What is a tissue? What are the four types of tissues found in the human body? What are the
major functions of each tissue type?
2. In the space below, define each of the following specialized charac
CHAPTER 2 CHEMICAL ORGANIZATION REVIEW
1. What is a hydrolysis?
2. What is dehydration synthesis?
3. What is an exchange reaction?
4. What makes a reversible reaction?
5. What is activation energy?
6. What is an enzyme?
7. What is a substrate?
8. What is
BIO 110 FJW15
August 23, 2014
Problem Set Chapter 1
1. What are the five characteristics of life?
b. Energy Use
c. Maintenance of Internal Constancy
d. Reproduction, Growth, and Development
2. Name the appropriate
Biology 110 Laboratory Test 3
1) What happened to our population of happy bears and sad bears?
2) Why did the happy bears get eaten? What force(s) of evolution was/were present? What are the five forces
5 forces natural selection, mutation,
Carbohydrate Catabolism in the Presence of Oxygen
Releases a Large Amount of Energy
Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions used by cells to harvest energy from food. Energy is
released when reduced organic molecules, with many
Biochemical Changes Involve Energy
A chemical reaction occurs when atoms have sufficient energy to combine, or to change their
bonding partners. Consider the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose to its component monomers,
glucose and fructos
Chromosomal basis of inheritance
Meiosis and gene assortment
P Generation: Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) x Green-wrinkled seeds (yyrr)
Possible Gametes (R) (Y); (r) (y)
F1 Generation: All F1 plants produce yellow-round seeds (YyRr)
Overview: The molecules of life (CH 5)
All living things are made up of 4 classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins,
and nucleic acids
Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms
BIO lecture notes 9/17
Lecture #9; Unit 3
The structure and purpose of extracellular matrix and cell walls
How cells can be joined to one another and examples of cells that might be joined that way
How solutes move in solution
How water moves in solution
The energy of life
The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur
The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work
Some organisms even convert energy to light, as in bioluminescence
Concept 8.1: An organ
11/5 BIO lecture notes
[Clicker question] Dihybrid cross
[Clicker question] A test-cross is used to determine whether an individual with a dominant phenotype is
heterozygous or homozygous
Pattern of inheritance is a rare allele is dominant:
Every person w
23.1 Genetic variation from sexual recombination
In sexually reproducing organisms, three processes lead to most genetic variation:
1- Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis
2- Crossing over of chromosomes in meiosis
3- Random fertilization
In DNA replication, the parent molecule unwinds, and two new daughter strands are built based on
Replication begins are particular sites called origins of replication, where the two DNA strands are
separated, opening up a replicat
BIO lecture note: unit 6
Nucleus Linear DNA
*Challenge that differs from prokaryotes: if linear, how do you make sure that it is evenly
divided- right pieces to the right cells? Mitosis
Chromosome = visual (compact)
Each chromosome has a gene
[End of unit 7: exceptions to Mendels laws]
Co-dominant* (example: Rr: red and white; instead of pink)
Concept 8.2: Alleles and genes interact to produce phenotypes
Figure 8.12: Genes interact epistatically
Epistasis (one gene control
Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Overview: Lifes operating instructions
In April 1953, James Watson & Francis Crick shook the scientific world with an elegant doublehelical model for the structure of DNA
Your genetic endowment is the DNA you
Different Life Cycles Use Different Modes of Cell
In Chapter 4 we described cells as the basic compartments of life, where biological processes are
separated from the external environment. Cells are also essential for biological r
CH 19: Reproductive System
Production of sperm (gametes)
Sustaining and transferring sperm to female
Production of male sex hormones
Production of oocytes/eggs (gametes)
Receives sperm from male
Nurturing development of and providing
CH 14: Specific Immune System
Mediated by the B cells & T cells
B cells make the antibodies
Specific receptors for specific antigens
When they come in contact with the foreign antigen
When helper T cell is activated releases cytokines
B cells dividemake t