4. (6 points)
a. What are the defining characteristics of the nidovirales?
i. membrane-enveloped, non-segmented positive-strand RNA viruses
ii. invariant general genomic organization, with a very large replicase gene
upstream of the structural protein gen
6. In tabular form, compare and contrast the following viruses: MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV,
and coronavirus 229E. Be sure to discuss the following:
a) Approximate date
1. Compare and contrast genetic shift and genetic drift.
a. What is the molecular basis of the effect?
i. Genetic drift is genetic variation between two areas generated by chance
effects, calculable on the basis of information on size of area and
5. (2 points)
a. Describe the molecular mechanism of orthomyxovirus cap stealing (cap
i. During cap-snatching, viral polymerase binds to cellular capped mRNA in
infected cells and an endonuclease associated with polymerase then
cleaves the capp
3. (5 points)
a. What led public health officials to fear the appearance of the swine flu strain of
i. Although direct transmission from pigs to humans of influenza is rare, the
retention of influenza strains in pigs after these strains h
4. Viruses can be prevented or delimited with behaviors, vaccines, and anti-virals.
a. List 2 behaviors that could prevent the spread of influenza.
i. Influenza vaccinations
ii. Avoid close contact with sick people
a) What gene is found in all viruses?
a. Promoter Gene
i. Fields 6th - 456
b) What additional gene is found in all enveloped proteins?
a. Replicase gene
i. Fields 6th - 831
c) What additional enzyme encoding gene is found in all mononegavirale
4. Humans have an elaborate immune system evolved to destroy viruses (among other
a. List four cellular or molecular components of the adaptive immune system that
are involved in controlling viruses. In a sentence tell how each it used.
4. 5 points Antibodies and immunity; For many viruses the presence of antibodies is
synonymous with immunity.
a. Give an example of one Flavivirus for which this is true.
i. Yellow Fever
1. Prior exposure to a flavivirus develops a cross-immune reaction f
3. 5 Points The great viral showdown; Compare and contrast the Arenaviridae and the
a. Tell how each family solves the tip problem.
i. Bunyaviridae solves the tip problem through having complimentary ends
that form a circular genome.
3. 5 points
a. What is the nature of the vaccine for adenovirus?
i. In 2011, oral, enteric coated vaccine was approved for use in military
populations 17 to 50 years of age.
ii. Fields Virology 6th Edition - Page 1755
b. What strains of adenovirus are tar
2. 3 points
a. What is the current polio vaccination policy in the United States?
i. The current polio vaccination policy is an inactivated polio vaccine
vaccination schedule meaning two doses of inactivated polio vaccine at
ages 2 and 4 months, followed
5. (5 points) consider the article by Cello et. Al
a. What molecular techniques did they use?
i. They synthesized full-length poliovirus complementary DNA by
assembling oligonucleotides of plus and minus strand polarity which was
then transcribed by RNA p
1. 6 points
a. What is the common cold? Include three symptoms. Be sure to distinguish it from
other respiratory conditions.
i. The common cold is an infection caused by a virus that attacks the upper
respiratory system. It typically is not a very serious
5. 4 points
a. Explain how the viral replication cycle is useful in the generation of antiviral
i. Viral life cycles have several specific steps which serve as targets for
antiviral compounds. Antiviral compounds are effective when they disrupt
2. Define the following terms:
i. Scientific study of plasma serum and other bodily fluids; diagnostic
identification of antibodies in the serum
ii. Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology(4th
ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 2479
3. 4 points
a. Name at least four classes of pharmaceutical agents that are used in the
symptomatic treatment of the common cold.
v. Goroll, Allan H. Primary Care Medicine: Office Evaluation and
2. Compare and contrast summer and winter colds. Aside from seasonality, give at least two
similarities and two differences.
a. Rhinoviruses cause most summer colds and tend to cause more symptoms above
the neck such as stuffy nose, headache, and runny ey
Problem Set #3
Source column is reference to Fields Virology: Sixth Edition
Problem Set #1
Source is reference to Fields Virology: Sixth Edition
y double stranded
Question #1, Part 2
The viruses in this family share a common elongated, rod-like, or bullet-like shape.
Fields 6th - Page 885
This family of viruses has a lack of an RNA-helicase domain en
2. Emerging infections
a. What is meant by emerging viral infection?
i. Emerging viral infections can be new diseases caused by known
microorganisms, newly recognized microorganisms causing diseases,
diseases and microorganisms found in new geographic are
Problem Set #4
1) 10 points
a) What is a viral teratogen?
a. A viral teratogen is a viral agent that causes abnormal development of the
b. Fowler, Murray E., and R. Eric. Miller. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine:
Current Therapy. St. Louis, MO: Saunder
Problem Set #6
1. 6 points
a. Using adenovirus as an example, describe at least one specific molecular
interaction for each of the 8 steps of the dynamic phase.
1. The fiber knob binds to primary cellular receptor, CAR in human
Problem Set #8
1. Discuss the feasibility of a world-wide eradication of ONE of the following diseases.
Consider the factors discussed in the eradication lecture handout. a) clearly state and
number each factor b) tell whether it would facilitate or hinde
Problem Set #7
1. Compare and contrast live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. Try to include:
a. The nature of each vaccine,
i. Live attenuated vaccines are vaccines that have pathogenic bacteria or
virus that has been weakened to be less virulent with
a) What is a viral syndrome?
a. A viral syndrome is a general term given to a set of symptoms that are not linked to
any particular viral disease.
b. Hahn, Robert. Anthropology in Public Health: Bridging Differences in Culture and
a) What is CPE?
a. Cytopathic effect
b. Cytopathic viruses kill the cells that they replicate in.
c. Murphy, Frederick A. Veterinary Virology. Academic Press, October 27, 1999.
b) Using different viral families, list three separate ex