Example Problem 1:
An Enon Soil has the following Horton infiltration parameters:
Define the rainfall rate that would result in ponding (from the beginning of the storm to
some point during the rainfall period.)
If rainfall rate is maintained f
City of Greensboro - Water Resources Department
2602 S Elm-Eugene St
Greensboro, NC 27406
Hydrant Flow Test Results
Mana Al Mansour
Class Notes 6
Characteristics of Biological Materials
1. Irregular shapes
This complicates the analysis & computation and also affects the design of
2. Heterogeneous composition
Basic elements are: cells, tissues, organs, systems
Class Notes 7
Major diameter is the longest dimension of the maximum projected area; a
Intermediate diameter is the minimum diameter on the maximum
projected area. It is assumed to be equal to the longest diameter of the
minimum projected area, b
Class Notes 8
Liquid Volume with a Pycnometer
1. Dry the pycnometer.
2. Weigh the empty dry pycnometer on an analytical balance and record the mass.
3. Fill the pycnometer with water of known temperature.
4. Take the mass of the filled pycnometer.
Class Notes 9
The basic structure of engineering materials such as metals is crystal or
The basic unit of biological materials is cell. The cell is the structural and
functional unit of all known
The best hydraulic section for a rectangular channel may be found as follows:
P = b + 2 y and b = P 2 y
A = by and A = y (P-2 y)
A= y (P-2y) = CP 2/5
Differentiating with respect to y:
Setting (dp / dy) = 0, P = 4y
And since P = b + 2y, theref
FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID FLOW: Pipes
and Open Channel
Flow in pipes may be classified as: laminar, turbulent and transitional.
The Osborne Reynolds apparatus such as the one in our water resources laboratory can be
used to demonstrate laminar flow and turbul
F1 = 6-20 Transition. Waves have irregular periods that can travel down stream for
miles. In stilling basins, we should try to avoid this range of Froude numbers.
F1 = 20-80 Range for Good Jumps. The jump is well balanced and the action is at its
Also recall the following equations for flow in closed conduits
hl= head loss
R = Hydraulic radius
V = Velocity
L = Length
n= Mannings roughness factor
S = Slope of Hydraulic grade line
Solve for f by trial and error.
Of the above formulas, the Darcy-Weisbach equation yields the most accurate result. In
most cases Hazen-Williams will be low and the Manning formula will be high.
Steps to determine pipe diameter for a given flow and head l
Weekly Progress Report (1)
Work done last week:
a) Research about water balance models.
b) Found several different types of models.
c) Collect number of resources.
Plan of work next week:
a) Read about different models.
b) Search which countries ha