Many small silicon crystals are oriented randomly within thin layers of
The efficiency of polycrystalline PV modules is in the order of 10-12%
The absorption coefficient for amorphous silicon, in the visible light ra
Alcohol Production Notes
The production of ethanol is accomplished by the following steps:
Saccharification- is the conversion of the starch into sugar:
This is done by milling the grain, soaking it with water, adding enzymes,
and heating the mash.
Anaerobic digestion Notes
What is anaerobic digestion (AD)?
Benefit of AD
Energy (biogas) generation; odor control, pathogen reduction, manure
emission control, liquid manure stabilization, nutrient availability, etc.
Biological process of producing b
Bio Diesel Notes
While developing his new invention, the compression ignition engine, Rudolf
Diesel tried many different fuels.
At the 1900 Paris Exposition, he unveiled his new engine which was fueled by
100% peanut oil.
Early experiences lead to the
Bioenergy crops include fast growing trees such as hybrid poplar, black locust, willow,
and silver maple in addition to annual crops such as corn, sweet sorghum, and perennial
grasses such as switchgrass.
Softwood residues are generally i
Bioethanol Production Notes
Currently produced from starches and sugars
Corn in the US and sugarcane in Brazil
Mature industry - cost not likely to decrease substantially
In the future, also produced from biomass
(crop residue and woody biomass)
Chapter 12 Notes
Advantages of PV Technology
There are no moving parts
It is a pollution-free power source with no major health hazards
The cells are reliable and long-lasting
The cells are usually made of silicon which is the most abundant material on ea
Dextrinization is reducing complex starch molecules into smaller molecules
called dextrin (glucose)
Dextrinization is accomplished by introducing Alpha-amylase enzyme during
hydration, at a specified temperature
It randomly attacks &
Ethenol Purification Notes
Ethanol is the only fuel that will burn in a spark ignition engine after some
Advancing engine timing,
Increasing carburetor jet size
Flexible fuel vehicles do not require any modification.
Ethanol is a lower ener
Most living plants get their energy from sun light
Basic metabolic processes are photosynthesis & respiration
Solar energy is converted to sugars, starch, and cellulose
Each photosynthetic reaction converts 477 kJ/mole of solar energy to ch