Embryogenesis: is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the
human embryo during early prenatal development.
Embryogenesis spans from the moment of fertilization to the end of the 8th week
of gestational age (huma
Gametogenesis is a process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo
cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek: translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is
a cell that
Gene Growth Notes
The question of growth. How do our cells know when to stop dividing?
If each cell in our face were to undergo just one more cell division, we
would be considered horribly malformed.
If each cell in our arms underwent just one more round
Lecture 1 Notes
Understand basic embryology terms, major questions the field of developmental
biology attempts to answer
Know different branches of embryology
Know major stages of development
Understand how development is regulated at the molecular and ce
Lecture 4 Notes
Interactions between cells (i.e. cell signaling)
These interactions between tissues (groups of cells) results in fate changes (aka
There are at least two components to every inductive interaction.
The first component is the indu
Lecture 5 Notes
FGFs- at least 20 different FGF genes have been identified.
FGFs activate FGFR (FGF receptors) and tyrosine kinase receptors (TKR).
Activation of these receptors result in activation of various cell signaling
FGFs regulate angioge
Mitosis- is the process whereby one cell divides, giving rise to two daughter cells
that are genetically identical to the parent cell (see Fig. 2.2).
Each daughter cell receives the complete complement of 46 chromosomes.
Each chromosome cons
Numerical Abnormalities Notes
Any cell with two chromosome sets is called a diploid cell and has a diploid
number of chromosomes, abbreviated 2 n .
Any cell with one chromosome set has a haploid number of chromosomes,
For humans, the diploi
Heterochromatin- is a tightly packed form of DNA. Its major characteristic is that
transcription is limited. As such, it is a means to control gene expression, through
regulation of the transcription initiation.
Euchromatin- is a lightly packed
For example, unbalanced translocations between the long arms of chromosomes
14 and 21 during meiosis I or II produce gametes with an extra copy of
chromosome 21, one of the causes of Down syndrome (see Fig. 2.6).
Translocations are par