Cell Communication Notes
Used to calculate equilibrium potentials
Based on ion concentrations:
Ex = - log -z
equilibrium potential in mV for ion X
concentration of ion outside the cell
concentration of ion inside the cell
Cell Equilibrium Notes
There is a difference in charge on each side of the plasma membrane due to:
Permeability of the membrane
Action of Na+/K+ pumps
Negatively charged molecules inside the cell
The inside of the cell is negative compared to the outside
Chapter 7 Notes
1. There must be a solute concentration difference on either side of a membrane
permeable to water.
2. The membrane must be impermeable to the solute, or the concentration difference
will not be maintained.
Solutes that cannot cross and pe
Grey Matter Notes
Based on the number of processes that extend from the cell body:
Pseudounipolar: single short process that branches like a T to form 2
Bipolar neurons: have two processes, one on either end
Example: sensory neurons
Lecture 2 Notes
Plasma has the same osmolality as a 0.3m glucose or a 0.15m NaCl solution.
These solutions are considered isosmotic to plasma.
Tonicity is the effect of a solute concentration on the osmosis of water.
If a membrane separates a 0.3m glucose
Lecture 4 Notes
Occurs when the hydrolysis of ATP is directly responsible for the protein function.
The transport protein is also an ATPase enzyme.
Pump is activated by phosphorylation using a Pi from ATP.
Located on all cells and in the endoplasmic retic
Lecture 5 Notes
Promote neuronal growth in the fetal brain
Nerve growth factor
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Glial-derived neurotrophic factor
In adults, neurotrophins aid in the maintenance of sympathetic ganglia and
Lecture 8 Notes
At rest, a neuron is considered polarized when the inside is more negative than the
When the membrane potential inside the cell increases, this is called
A return to resting potential is called repolarization.
Motor Neurons Notes
A target cell receives a signal because it has receptor proteins specific to it on the
plasma membrane or inside the cell.
Nonpolar signal molecules such as steroid hormones can penetrate the
plasma membrane and interact with receptors
Strong Stimulus Notes
A stronger stimulus will make action potentials occur more frequently.
A stronger stimulus may also activate more neurons in a nerve. This is called
Action potentials can only increase in frequency to a certain point. Th