Weekly Progress Report (1)
Work done last week:
a) Research about water balance models.
b) Found several different types of models.
c) Collect number of resources.
Plan of work next week:
a) Read about different models.
b) Search which countries ha
City of Greensboro - Water Resources Department
2602 S Elm-Eugene St
Greensboro, NC 27406
Hydrant Flow Test Results
Mana Al Mansour
Lecture 6 Notes Accumulation of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) Causes: sudden Addition of a large amount of readily digestible organic material, Toxic compound or Temperature change Excess volatile acid production If not adequate buffering, pH drops and metha
Lecture 5 Notes Feedstocks vary in their potential to produce biogas. Feedstocks high in volatile solids and biological degradable components have high biogas potential. Fats, which are high in volatile solids, generate the greatest biogas. Solids take lo
Bioenergy crops include fast growing trees such as hybrid poplar, black locust, willow,
and silver maple in addition to annual crops such as corn, sweet sorghum, and perennial
grasses such as switchgrass.
Softwood residues are generally i
Bioethanol Production Notes
Currently produced from starches and sugars
Corn in the US and sugarcane in Brazil
Mature industry - cost not likely to decrease substantially
In the future, also produced from biomass
(crop residue and woody biomass)
Chapter 12 Notes
Advantages of PV Technology
There are no moving parts
It is a pollution-free power source with no major health hazards
The cells are reliable and long-lasting
The cells are usually made of silicon which is the most abundant material on ea
Dextrinization is reducing complex starch molecules into smaller molecules
called dextrin (glucose)
Dextrinization is accomplished by introducing Alpha-amylase enzyme during
hydration, at a specified temperature
It randomly attacks &
Ethenol Purification Notes
Ethanol is the only fuel that will burn in a spark ignition engine after some
Advancing engine timing,
Increasing carburetor jet size
Flexible fuel vehicles do not require any modification.
Ethanol is a lower ener
Many small silicon crystals are oriented randomly within thin layers of
The efficiency of polycrystalline PV modules is in the order of 10-12%
The absorption coefficient for amorphous silicon, in the visible light ra
Most living plants get their energy from sun light
Basic metabolic processes are photosynthesis & respiration
Solar energy is converted to sugars, starch, and cellulose
Each photosynthetic reaction converts 477 kJ/mole of solar energy to ch
Alcohol Production Notes
The production of ethanol is accomplished by the following steps:
Saccharification- is the conversion of the starch into sugar:
This is done by milling the grain, soaking it with water, adding enzymes,
and heating the mash.
Anaerobic digestion Notes
What is anaerobic digestion (AD)?
Benefit of AD
Energy (biogas) generation; odor control, pathogen reduction, manure
emission control, liquid manure stabilization, nutrient availability, etc.
Biological process of producing b
Bio Diesel Notes
While developing his new invention, the compression ignition engine, Rudolf
Diesel tried many different fuels.
At the 1900 Paris Exposition, he unveiled his new engine which was fueled by
100% peanut oil.
Early experiences lead to the
Chapter 1 Notes
2 types of data formats used to encode GIS data
Stores both spatial and attribute data
Both systems are georeferenced
Information is tied to a specific location on the Earths surface
Can be displayed at the same time
Chapter 2 Notes
Names or Identifies Objects
Uniquely identifies any particular object in a data set
Not always text (i.e. FIPS codes, Parcel IDs, etc.)
Usually displayed on a map as a label
Separates objects into distinct c
Chapter 5 Notes
Queries are used to explore data, answer questions about the data, and look for
patterns in the data.
A query extracts data from features or records from a data table and isolates them
for further use.
If an item or series of items are sel
Chapter 6 Notes
There is an inherent problem with spatial joins
o We want to perform a spatial join, joining land parcel class data to a road.
The road splits across several land parcels.
What happens if we perform a spatial join in this situ
Attribute Data contains information in a tabular format. It can store any type of
Spatial Data contain the coordinates and identifying information for various map
features. Three types of features can be represented in the map: poi
Chapter 7 Notes
A spatial join is similar to an attribute join
Instead of a key field, the location of the features is used to link features
Cardinality is equally important
The result of a spatial join is a new feature class or shapefile
The source and d
US AG Industry Sheet
Banking and Financial Services
Media and Press
Trucking and Delivery
Defense and Intelligence
Defense and Intelligence
Universities and Commu
Lecture 5 Notes
Divides the values into classes of the same size
Creates a numerically balanced map
The changes in data within each group is unknown
Best applied to linearly distributed data
You are setting the percentage of items within each
Lecture 4 Notes
Normalizing data means dividing the data in order to compare it to another value.
Can be done two ways:
Normalize in relation to the total of the data
Ex: Population of each county as a percentage of the total state
Lecture 3 Notes
Rasters can represent two different types of data
Discrete rasters store information that might be unrelated to neighboring rasters
Continuous rasters contain values that smoothly relate to neighboring rasters
Represents data that chang
Cost Analysis Notes
1. Direct cost
1.1 Investment costs
Interest on capital investment (Time value of money)
1.2 Overhead costs
Product design and development
Creativity & Design Notes
Engineering design is a systematic process by which solutions to the needs of humankind
Specifically, design is to (1) pull together something new or (2) arrange existing things in
a new way to satisfy a recognized
Intro to Class Notes
. Engineers-Who are we?
An engineer is a person who posses the knowledge of mathematics and natural sciences,
and through the principles of analysis and design,
applies this knowledge to the solution of problems and the development of
Laws of Estimation for professional Success Notes
Law 1. Every thing takes longer than expected.
Law 2. If youve done the same task before on a different project, estimate the amount of
time required to finish the task. The actual amount of time required
Example specifications of chemical and biobased products:
1. Chemical composition: What is its composition? How much is its composition
changed without affecting its performance?
2. Physical geometry: what product characteristics are fix