Chapter 3 First Law of Thermodynamics
1. 3. What state functions correspond to the heat absorbed at constant P and the heat absorbed at constant V?
H is the heat absorbed at constant pressure. E is the heat absorbed at a constant volume.
Classify each of
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Complete the following table. The measured potentials are your experimental data. Use the table of Standard Reduction Potentials. to determine the calculated potentials. Use the Zn2+/Zn
Because water is so good at forming hydrogen bonds with itself, it
is most hospitable to molecules or ions that least disrupt its H
bonding network. Watching oils float on the surface of water
demonstrates that oil molecules are nonpolar they don't carry
Opposite charges attract. For example, Mg 2+ ions associate with
the negatively charged phosphates of nucleotides and nucleic
acids. Within proteins, salt bridges can form between nearby
charged residues, for example, between a positively charged
The basis of the study of molecular evolution and taxonomy is the
origin of organisms. Although the tree of life shown in Figure was
derived from sequences of a single gene, the similarities among
organisms' biochemical and molecular properties are greate
In the cell, single amino acids, sugars, and nucleotides can be
joined together into polymers. Polymers are large molecules
composed of small subunits arranged in a head to tail fashion.
Living systems are based on polymers. There are several reasons
Bondbreaking reactions: For example, carboncarbon bond
The complexity of life results, not from many different types of
reactions, but rather from these simple reactions occurring in
many different situations. Thus, for example, water can be add
As the name indicates, biochemistry is a hybrid science: Biology
is the science of living organisms and chemistry is the science of
atoms and molecules, so biochemistry is the science of the atoms
and molecules in living organisms. Its domain encompasses
The classification and grouping of organisms, the science called
taxonomy, regards organisms as similar based on their visible
characteristics. Thus, from the Greeks until recently, plants and
animals were regarded as the two main kingdoms of life. Later,
Amino acids all have the common core structure shown in Figure .
Generally, amino acids found in nature are the Lstereoisomers.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and have an
important role in energy metabolism and in cellular signaling.
The tendency of nonpolar molecules to selfassociate in water
rather than to dissolve individually is called the hydrophobic
effect. The term is somewhat misleading because it refers to the
molecules themselves, where in reality it is due to the Hbonding
Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry
1. Indicate the number of neutrons in each of the following nuclei.
A a) b) c) d)
Z 4 42 33 79
N = A-Z 6 58 42 118
10 100 75 197
Write the symbol, including atomic number and mass, for each of the
CH201-001 SSII 2009 Exam 1 (exam code A)
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Instructions: 1) Clearly write name on answer sheet 2) All work must be shown for full credit 3) There is a 1 digit tolerance for significant figures 4) Sign honor pledge and public grade statemen
CH201-001 SSII 2009 Exam 2 (exam code A)
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Instructions: 1) Clearly write name on each page 2) All work must be shown for full credit 3) There is a 1 digit tolerance for significant figures 4) Be sure answers have proper significant figure
CH201-001 SSII 2009 Exam 3
Name:_ Last First
Instructions: 1) Clearly write name on each page 2) All work must be shown for full credit 3) There is a 1 digit tolerance for significant figures 4) Be sure answers have proper significant figures AND units
Chapter 2 Solutions
1. How many grams of CuSO4 are required to make 650. mL of a 0.115-M solution?
650. mL solution 1 L solution 0.115 mol CuSO4 159.608 g CuSO4 = 11.9 g CuSO 4 1000 mL solution L solution 1 mol CuSO4
How many grams of Na2SO4 are requir
Chapter 4 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium
Refer to the following figures for Exercises 1-6. Each represents the energies of four molecules at a given instant, and the dotted lines represent the allowed energies. Assume constant spacing between levels to de
Chapter 5 Chemical Equilibrium
1. What are the units of Kp and Kc for each of the following: a) 2H2S(g)
Kp = PH2 S
2H2(g) + S2(g)
= atm2 atm = atm atm2
2 PH2 PS2
[H2 ]2 [S2 ] M2 M = =M 2 [H2S] M2
b) 4NH3(g) + 3O2(g)
2 6 PN2 PH2 O
2N2(g) + 6H2O(g
Chapter 6 Acids and Bases
1. 3. Define a conjugate acid-base pair.
A conjugate acid-base pair is a weak acid and a weak base that differ by only one proton.
Indicate the conjugate base for each of the following: a) OH1O2b) H2O2 HO211+ H2O e) H2SO3 HSO31d)
Chapter 7 Mixtures of Acids and Bases
1. What is a common ion and what is the common-ion effect?
Common ions are involved in an equilibrium but have more than one source. The common-ion effect is the shift of the equilibrium away from the common ion so as
Chapter 8 Equilibria Containing Metal Ions
1. Explain why Fe(H2O)63+ is a stronger acid than Fe(H2O)62+.
The higher oxidation state on the Fe in Fe(H2O)63+ results in more electron density being withdrawn from the O-H bonds in H2O, which makes the water a
Chapter 9 Electrochemistry
1. What is a passive electrode? What quality in a metal is required to serve as a passive electrode? Give three examples of metals that would make good passive electrodes.
A passive electrode is an electrode that does not partic
Chapter 10 Chemical Kinetics
1. Distinguish between kinetic and thermodynamic regions of a reaction.
Concentrations change in the kinetic region, but they are constant at their equilibrium values in the thermodynamic region.
3. 5. 7.
How does an increase
At the end of the nineteenth century, a parallel controversy arose
as organic chemists debated whether an intact, living cell was
needed to carry out biochemical reactions. Hans Bchner in
Germany reproduced the synthesis of ethanol with a cellfree