1. You have a 0.5 M stock solution of Tris base. How would you make 100 ml of
0.03 M Tris base?
2. If you perform a 1:4 dilution on 50 mM Tris base, what is the final
3. You have 47 ml of a protein solution. You want to add 0.39 g of
Carnot Cycle Step #4 Reversible, adiabatic compression of a gas;
surroundings do work on the gas, causing it to gain an equivalent
of internal energy and reach the higher temperature
Ideal Gas Relationship btw Heat and Temperature qh/qc= -th/tc; h
Phenolphthalein An indicator that turns colorless from pH 0-10
and red from 10-14.
Universal indicator An indicator that changes color depending on
the pH: red at pH 0, green at pH 7, and purple at pH 14. These
color changes are gradual as the pH changes,
Example of a Nonspontaneous Reaction In an isolated system, in
which liquid water is frozen into ice cubes
Second Law of Thermodynamics An isolated system will
spontaneously change to maximize its entropy
Entropy A measure of disorder, but it is defined a
What has to be assumed for freezing point depression
calculations? 1. nonfreezing solute
2. nonelectrolyte solute
4. constant pressure
5. constant Hfus
6. TF* = TF' = TF
7. ideal solution
What has to be assumed for boiling point elevation calcul
What is G of solvation? The work of charging an ion in a medium
- the work of charging an ion in a vacuum.
What does a low dialectric constant imply? Less ability to resist an
internal electric field.
Why do ions with larger charges deviate from the Born
Activation energy The energy required for colliding particles to
Successful collisions Collisions between particles that have the
required activation energy.
Concentration Increasing this will increase the number of particles
of reactant in a given
Exact Differential Mathematical term which refers to in this class,
a process being path independent, which essentially means it is a
state function, which includes U, H, G, and S
Inexact Differential Mathematical term which refers to in this class
Maxwell Relationships of Internal Energy df(x,y)=gdx+hdy;
dU=Tds-pdV-> (dT/dV)s= (-dp/dS)v
Mnemonic Device for Maxwell Relationships and Derivatives of
Thermodynamic Potentials S U V
This is manipulated to determine the fundamental equation of
Helmholtz Energy A thermodynamic quantity, which requires that
the chemical process be carried out in constant volume, and is
defined as A=U-TS; not as useful in terms of experiments/lab
work; symbol A originates from the German alphabet, which
Acid A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydrogen
Base A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide
Alkali A base that is soluble in water.
Neutral solution A solution that has a pH of 7.
Acidic solution A solution that