Mc Lc
I. TRCH YEU:.3
1. Muc ch th nghiem.3
2. Phng phap th nghiem:.3
3. Ket qua th nghiem:.3
II. C S LY THUYET:.3
1. o giam ap cua dong kh:.3
2. He so ma sat fck theo Rec khi cot kho:.4
3. o giam ap Pc khi cot t:.5
4. iem lut cua cot chem:.6
I
4. State Plancks distribution law.
The relationship between the monochromatic emissive power of a black body and wave length of a radiation at a particular temperature is given by
the following expression, by Planck.
Eb
C1 5
C2
e T 1
Where Eb = Monochr
TOTAL EMISSIVE POR:defi as the total amount of radiations emitted by abody per unit area and time . it
is expressed in W/m2 .the emissive power of a black body , according to Stefan boltzman is proportional
to abslute temp to the fourth power Eb= T4 W/m2
EFI AND EFFC OF FIN: The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transferred by the
fin to the maximum heat transferable by fin, area were at base temperature.
actual heat transfr by fin(QFIN )
EFFI OF FIN= max het that would be tra
RADIATION SHIELDS: In certain situations it is required to reduce the overall heat transfer between two radiating surfaces. This is done by either using materials which are
highly reflective or by using radiat shields between the heat exchanging sutfaces.
In the boundary layer concept the flow field over a body is divided into two regions:1. A thin region near the body called the boundary layer where the velocity and
thetemperature gradients are large.2. The region outside the boundary layer where the velo
LUMPED CAPACITY SYS:All solids have a finite thermal
conductivity and there will be always atemperature gradient
inside the solid whenever heat is added or removed.However for
solids of large thermal conductivity with surface areas thatare
large in propor
5.5.1 The Stability of a Discrete Linear System 377
at 002
A1 A2
F(z)=Ao+7+Z—2+", z>ro.
However, F has the power series (in 1/2) representation (9), so Aj = for j = 0, 1,
2, . Thus, the series ij/zj converges exterior to the circle z = r0 and, by the
5.5 The ZTransform 367
n = 0, 1, 2, . . . . This is a reason for saying that the Ztransform is a “discrete Laplace
transform.”
The Ztransform shares many of the general properties of the Laplace trans
form. First, it is linear:
If {11;} and {bi} are t
5.5.1 The Stability of a Discrete Linear System 375
y": 2 f,‘x,_k, n=0,1,2,. (10)
k=0
That is, the output {yn} of the system is given in terms of the input {xj} by the
convolution equation (10). The rational function F given in (9) is called the system
tr
5.5 The ZTransform 373
—1+(2+\/§)(3—%>
#_o_
zﬁ '
7'2 = Res(f§ 22) =
Hence, for z > 22, we obtain the expansion
I(z)=i0:1+ i
k=1 21‘
where
ik = r121“1 + rzz’z‘”, k =1, 2, 3,. . D
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5.5
In Exercises 1 to 7, ﬁnd the Ztransform of th
5.5 The Z—Transform 369
Hence,gj=j+ 1,} = 0,1,2,.,so
J'
j=0,1,2,.
n=0
In a0 = b0, ‘11 = b1 + zbo, a2 = b2 + 2111 + 3170, etc. D
Shifting
If the sequence {aj} is shifted by one unit to form the new sequence {bi}, = a1“,
j= 0,1,2,.,then
Z({bj}) =z[Z({aj})
APPENDIX 1
Locating the Zeros of
a Polynomial
A polynomial of degree d has precisely d zeros, counting multiplicities, in the
complex plane. This appendix contains several theorems that help to locate these
zeros. The first result is the “grandfather” of
Appendix 1 Locating the Zeros of a Polynomial 383
resulting quadratic term vanishes. Speciﬁcally, if z = w + d, we obtain
w3 + (A + 3d)w2 + (3d2 + 2Ad + B)w + (d3 + Ad2 + Bd + C): 0.
The choice d = — A/3 yields
w3+aw+b=0 (2)
with
1 2 1
= ——A2 =——A3——A .
a
5.5.1 The Stability of a Discrete Linear System 379
2. Let p be a polynomial of degree N; show that
1
q(w) = (w — 1)”p (w + )
w—l
is a polynomial of degree N or less in w.
3. Let p and q be related as in Exercise 2. Find q(w) if p(z) is
(a) p(z) = A2 +
2
t
2D STEADY STATE CONDUCTION 1:RECTANGULAR PLATES : x 2
2
+
t
2
y =0;wre t is a function of x
& y.
d2 X
d2Y
1 d2 X
1 d2 Y
d2 X
2
t2=X.Y.were X=f(x),Y=f(y).Y d x 2 +X d y 2 =0; X d x 2 =+ y d y 2 ; d x 2 + lam X =0;
d2Y
d y2

lam2 Y =0;
lam. y
X=Acos
LAMES ELLIPSOID: Let Pxyz be a coordinate frame of reference at point P, parallel to the principal axes at P. On a plane passing through P with normal n, the
n
, n
=
T y= 2 ny
Tz
n
The coordinates
3 z ; Let PQ be along the resultant stress vector and its
Plant Manager Responsibilities and Duties
Provide support to all manufacturing teams and manage efficient integration of work flow.
Ensure compliance to all schedule for machines and facilities and assist in installation of all equipments.
Maintain opti
Plot plans: after the engineering flow diagrams are completed and before detailed piping, structural and electrical design can begin the layout of process units in a plant and the equipment within these process units must be planned.these planning is done
UNIT 1 METAL CUTTING AND CHIP
FORMATION
Metal Cutting and
Chip Formation
Structure
1.1 Introduction
Objectives
1.2 Material Removal Processes
1.3 Chip Formation
1.3.1
Deformation in Metal Machining
1.3.2
Chip Types
1.3.3
Types of Cutting
1.3.4
Mechanics o
STATIC & DYNAMIC BAL: A system of rotating masses is said to be static balance. If the combined mass
centre of the system lies on the axis of rotation ie., balancing mass & masses to be balanced are in same
plane . here
F
=0; When several masses rotate in
BARr code, a printed series of parallel bars or lines of varying width that is used for entering data into a computer system. The bars are typically black on a
white background, and their width and quantity vary according to application. The bars are used
AUTOMATED STORAGE / RETRIVEL:Unit Load AS/RS The unit load AS/RS is used to store and retrieve loads that are palletized or stored in standardsized
containers. The system is computer controlled. The S/R machines are automated and designed to handle the u
GUIDENCE :NAVIGATION WIRED:tA slot is cut in to the floor and a wire is placed approximately 1 inch below the surface. This slot is cut along the path the
AGV is to follow. This wire is used to transmit a radio signal. A sensor is installed on the bottom
AVG automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers
or wires in the floor, or uses vision, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most often used in
industrial applications to move materials around a
Group Technology Batch manufacturing is estimated to be the most common form of production in the United States, constituting more than 50% of total
manufacturing activity. There is a growing need to make batch manufacturing more efficient and productive.
BALANCING OF RECIPROCATING MASSES *(effect of inertia force of the reciprocating mass on the engine.,m=mass of the resiprocating parts.l=length of conecting rod;r=radious of crank,
2
r[cos
cos 2
n
=
+
cos 2
n
Fp
Fs
+
2
];.:.inertia force due to resiproca
MULTI CYLINLINE IN LINE ENGINE : The multicylinder engines with the cylinder center lines in the same plane and on the same side of the center line of the crankshaft, are known as inline
engines.* Two conditions must be satisfied in order to give the p