Mc Lc
I. TRCH YEU:.3
1. Muc ch th nghiem.3
2. Phng phap th nghiem:.3
3. Ket qua th nghiem:.3
II. C S LY THUYET:.3
1. o giam ap cua dong kh:.3
2. He so ma sat fck theo Rec khi cot kho:.4
3. o giam ap Pc khi cot t:.5
4. iem lut cua cot chem:.6
I
1. Sebagai mahasiswa apakah anda berminat berwirausaha ?
A. Ya
B. Tidak.
2. Berikan alasan anda mengapa anda memilih Iya/Tidak ?
3. Berapa modal yang anda butuhkan untuk memulai wirausaha ?
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
A. <500.000 Rupiah.
B. 500.000 2.000.000 Rupiah
LUMPED CAPACITY SYS:All solids have a finite thermal
conductivity and there will be always atemperature gradient
inside the solid whenever heat is added or removed.However for
solids of large thermal conductivity with surface areas thatare
large in propor
In the boundary layer concept the flow field over a body is divided into two regions:1. A thin region near the body called the boundary layer where the velocity and
thetemperature gradients are large.2. The region outside the boundary layer where the velo
RADIATION SHIELDS: In certain situations it is required to reduce the overall heat transfer between two radiating surfaces. This is done by either using materials which are
highly reflective or by using radiat shields between the heat exchanging sutfaces.
EFI AND EFFC OF FIN: The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transferred by the
fin to the maximum heat transferable by fin, area were at base temperature.
actual heat transfr by fin(QFIN )
EFFI OF FIN= max het that would be tra
TOTAL EMISSIVE POR:defi as the total amount of radiations emitted by abody per unit area and time . it
is expressed in W/m2 .the emissive power of a black body , according to Stefan boltzman is proportional
to abslute temp to the fourth power Eb= T4 W/m2
4. State Plancks distribution law.
The relationship between the monochromatic emissive power of a black body and wave length of a radiation at a particular temperature is given by
the following expression, by Planck.
Eb
C1 5
C2
e T 1
Where Eb = Monochr
2
t
2D STEADY STATE CONDUCTION 1:RECTANGULAR PLATES : x 2
2
+
t
2
y =0;wre t is a function of x
& y.
d2 X
d2Y
1 d2 X
1 d2 Y
d2 X
2
t2=X.Y.were X=f(x),Y=f(y).Y d x 2 +X d y 2 =0; X d x 2 =+ y d y 2 ; d x 2 + lam X =0;
d2Y
d y2

lam2 Y =0;
lam. y
X=Acos
LAMES ELLIPSOID: Let Pxyz be a coordinate frame of reference at point P, parallel to the principal axes at P. On a plane passing through P with normal n, the
n
, n
=
T y= 2 ny
Tz
n
The coordinates
3 z ; Let PQ be along the resultant stress vector and its
BALANCING OF RADIAL ENGINE: This method is used in balancing of radial or Vengins in which the connecting rod are coonected to a commen crank. ;Fiigg crank; let he crank OC (direct
crank )rotates uniformily at rad/sec in a clockwise dir. The indirect or
BALANCING OF LOCOMOTIVES:Locomotives are of two types, coupled and uncoupled. If two or more
pairs of wheels are coupled together to increase the adhesive force between the wheels and the track, it
is called a coupled locomotive. Otherwise, it is an uncou
BALANCING MACHINE: (i)A PIVOTED CRADLE BALANCING MACHINE:plane seperation using a point ofzero to min vibration is called the nodal point
method of balencing. Here the specimen to be balanced is mounted on bearing which are fastened to a nodal bar because
BALANCING OF V ENGINE: in the fig =iclination of the crank with the vertical; 1.inertia force of force
2
due to resiprocating parts at cylinder 1 along the line of stroke = m
r[cos ( )+cos 2
( )
]; 2.inertia force due to reciprocating parts of cylinder 2
MULTI CYLINLINE IN LINE ENGINE : The multicylinder engines with the cylinder center lines in the same plane and on the same side of the center line of the crankshaft, are known as inline
engines.* Two conditions must be satisfied in order to give the p
BALANCING OF RECIPROCATING MASSES *(effect of inertia force of the reciprocating mass on the engine.,m=mass of the resiprocating parts.l=length of conecting rod;r=radious of crank,
2
r[cos
cos 2
n
=
+
cos 2
n
Fp
Fs
+
2
];.:.inertia force due to resiproca
Group Technology Batch manufacturing is estimated to be the most common form of production in the United States, constituting more than 50% of total
manufacturing activity. There is a growing need to make batch manufacturing more efficient and productive.
AVG automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers
or wires in the floor, or uses vision, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most often used in
industrial applications to move materials around a
GUIDENCE :NAVIGATION WIRED:tA slot is cut in to the floor and a wire is placed approximately 1 inch below the surface. This slot is cut along the path the
AGV is to follow. This wire is used to transmit a radio signal. A sensor is installed on the bottom
AUTOMATED STORAGE / RETRIVEL:Unit Load AS/RS The unit load AS/RS is used to store and retrieve loads that are palletized or stored in standardsized
containers. The system is computer controlled. The S/R machines are automated and designed to handle the u
BARr code, a printed series of parallel bars or lines of varying width that is used for entering data into a computer system. The bars are typically black on a
white background, and their width and quantity vary according to application. The bars are used
STATIC & DYNAMIC BAL: A system of rotating masses is said to be static balance. If the combined mass
centre of the system lies on the axis of rotation ie., balancing mass & masses to be balanced are in same
plane . here
F
=0; When several masses rotate in
UNIT 1 METAL CUTTING AND CHIP
FORMATION
Metal Cutting and
Chip Formation
Structure
1.1 Introduction
Objectives
1.2 Material Removal Processes
1.3 Chip Formation
1.3.1
Deformation in Metal Machining
1.3.2
Chip Types
1.3.3
Types of Cutting
1.3.4
Mechanics o
Appendix 1 Locating the Zeros of a Polynomial 385
be so if the discriminant of the righthand side vanishes—that is, if
2
(Aw—C)2—4(%—B+2w>(w2—D)=0. (8)
This is a cubic in w and can be solved as outlined above. We can then take any
root w* of this cubic,
5.5.1 The Stability of a Discrete Linear System 379
2. Let p be a polynomial of degree N; show that
1
q(w) = (w — 1)”p (w + )
w—l
is a polynomial of degree N or less in w.
3. Let p and q be related as in Exercise 2. Find q(w) if p(z) is
(a) p(z) = A2 +
Appendix 1 Locating the Zeros of a Polynomial 383
resulting quadratic term vanishes. Speciﬁcally, if z = w + d, we obtain
w3 + (A + 3d)w2 + (3d2 + 2Ad + B)w + (d3 + Ad2 + Bd + C): 0.
The choice d = — A/3 yields
w3+aw+b=0 (2)
with
1 2 1
= ——A2 =——A3——A .
a
APPENDIX 1
Locating the Zeros of
a Polynomial
A polynomial of degree d has precisely d zeros, counting multiplicities, in the
complex plane. This appendix contains several theorems that help to locate these
zeros. The first result is the “grandfather” of
5.5 The Z—Transform 369
Hence,gj=j+ 1,} = 0,1,2,.,so
J'
j=0,1,2,.
n=0
In a0 = b0, ‘11 = b1 + zbo, a2 = b2 + 2111 + 3170, etc. D
Shifting
If the sequence {aj} is shifted by one unit to form the new sequence {bi}, = a1“,
j= 0,1,2,.,then
Z({bj}) =z[Z({aj})
5.5 The ZTransform 373
—1+(2+\/§)(3—%>
#_o_
zﬁ '
7'2 = Res(f§ 22) =
Hence, for z > 22, we obtain the expansion
I(z)=i0:1+ i
k=1 21‘
where
ik = r121“1 + rzz’z‘”, k =1, 2, 3,. . D
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5.5
In Exercises 1 to 7, ﬁnd the Ztransform of th