Why do Dictyostelium move?
a. Aggregate when food supply is low by chemotaxis
a.a.i. Starving cells produce signal cAMP, which binds to cell
surface receptors on other amoeba, triggering them to travel to
b. Crawl as one slug of 100k cells
I. NOT plaques of cholesterol insider arteries
II. condition in which an artery wall thickens due to build-up of fatty materials like
III. syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels, a chronic inflammatory response in the walls
Why no cure has been discovered or invented for autoimmune diseases
The Three Main Reasons why no cure has been discovered or invented for autoimmune diseases: 1)
Cortico-steroids 2) the word "recognize" 3) the word "self"
1) Cortico-steroids (Because the
Lecture Notes 5
Heart muscle cells are an example of a differentiated cell type.Red blood cells are
another example.The red-sensitive cone cells of the retina could be considered to be a
separate differentiated cell type than the blue-sensitive cone cells
Lecture 6 Notes
Within any piece of matter, all forces are exactly counterbalanced against each other except while this piece of matter is spontaneously changing from one geometry to
This is true for individual protein molecules. It is also true
Lecture 12 Notes
Your life depends on the proper functioning of your immune system:
1) Specifically the ability of your B-lymphocytes to make antibodies(antibodies are a
certain kind of protein)with binding sites whose shapes exactly fit and bind to germs
Lecture Notes 14
Cell Differentiation: (an even more important phenomenon than "operons", & notice the
rewards earned by explaining THOSE things!)
I) Turn on unlinked sub-sets of genes II) Permanence of each differentiated cell
type III) What blocks cells
Osteoporosis: Weakening of bones, which often occurs in old age. (And is also caused by
weightlessness in astronauts)
You would make enormous contributions to human health, and reduce great
suffering, if you could solve these problems.
What Abnormality of cancer cells makes them invasive?
It's not that normal body cells can't crawl, because almost every differentiated cell type will crawl if put in
tissue culture, on glass or plastic (or a fibrin clot, or a collagen gel). So the real qu
The Story of the Anti-Malaria Wind Fans
Once upon a time, only a little more than a hundred years ago, everyone was sure that Malaria, Yellow Fever
and a lot of other diseases were caused by bad-smelling air that came out of swamps. Really, of course, wha
Telomeres in relation to aging
How to test whether aging is related to telomere function, or non-function.
Evidence is better for a relation of telomeres to tissue culture cell "Senescence".
"Immortal" cell lines like HeLa and L-cells have very active tel
Krieg, etc. C-P Heisenberg Paper
In order to measure the strength of adhesions between fish embryo cells, Krieg used
atomic force microscope as a single-cell force spectroscope.
The AFM seems mo
Exam is Wed. December 16th at 8:00 AM
What sort of questions will be on the final exam?
Exam is open notesbring research papers and handouts
First, READ POPPER AND KUHN again
Read the handouts
Popper: what makes things scientific is having things that can
I. Dr. ALBERT HARRIS mentions Weakened Force of Traction in CANCER CELLS
a. PHORBOL ESTER TUMOR PROMOTER which reduces WRINKLING OF
RUBBER SUBSTRATA thereby inhibiting SMOOTH MUSCLE
CONTRACTION through activation of Sodium-Potassium ATP-ase
Vimentin intermediate filament network present in most mesenchymally derived cells is in part
responsible for the strength and integryity of cells and necessary for tissue movement that require
the generation of significant tractional forces
1) Body cells connect to collagen by a special protein, named fibronectin, which at one end has binding
sites for a special family of membrane proteins, called integrins. Along the length of fibronectin, there are a
series of selective binding sites for c
Including many kinds of amoeboid organisms, not just Amoeba proteus (the one used in teaching labs).
Including locomotion of white blood cells, and also structural cells of our body.
Also including the mechanical forces by which amoeba
Cartilage and the two meanings of the word "electro-osmosis"
Occasionally, certain phenomena are reasonably well understood by some experts (like me) (thus
not being "unsolved" in the usual sense), but most scientists & MDs still don't get the point.
Decisive, cheap and practical ways that you could have proved those research questions
#3) Graph the percentage of launches that had serious "burn throughs" as a function of the temperature at
the time of launch. Notice that they had increased exponential
For (almost?) every scientific fact that we know, there used to be a different theory that
seemed to explain the same phenomena
Before Mendel's laws were discovered (and much later accepted) genetic inheritance was considered to be
comparable to the mixin
Macrophages are one of the smallest differentiated cell types in the human body, perhaps the
smallest, although "macro" comes from the Greek word for big. When macrophages are
circulating in the blood, they are called "monocytes"; when
Outline history of cell sorting discoveries and debates
H. V. Wilson (of UNC) notices that living sponge tissues become disorganized when in poor culture
conditions, but can reorganize if conditions are improved. (Plus, he must have known about gemmules i
Study Guide for Final Exam
#1) There is an idea the cause of cancer is abnormally fast rates of growth and/or more
frequent or faster mitotic divisions.
a* Why do you suppose people got this idea? Originally?
b* What observations tend to support explanati