Philosophical: Die the text get it right?
Historical/Cultural: How does the text respond to and contribute to its particular time
Third Option: How does the text produce a certain conception of the self?
What is Enlightenment?
Enlightenment as Exit from self incurred minority.
Role of Public Sphere
Public means say what you want, but obey
Private means some prescribed social role with its necessary norms and rules.
Public and private, as Ka
Kant wants universal human truth (rational), no experience.
Ethics: Philosophy of Freedom
No experience (morality)
Will: the ability to affect change. Initiate causal chain.
What is Orientation in thinking?
Orientation: idea that there is a supreme principle that helps you understand what to
do. Roadmap of morality.
Jacobi says he can see the unknown that Kant says no one can see.
The Jacobi would have
Spirit: self organization
Science: type of knowledge that examines our historical existence as a result of a
coherent and rational process of self organization.
The Concept: particular form of a moment in this process that
Unreachable absolute (a priori)
Public vs. Private use of reason
Universal progressive history (telos). Principle of progression is reason.
Kant says categorical imperative has to be self
The Notion and Recognition
Like a program of development that unfolds. The plant belongs to the concept of the
Recognition means acknowledging that I only relate to myself through an other.
How you conceive yourself depends on how other
Notion/Concept: Progressive unfolding of something and each stage it arrives at along the
Negative: Something we have an encounter with. Master removed from the negative.
Desire: Relationship you can have with an object.
Freedom as Self Realization
The realization of freedom in French Revolution failed. Nevertheless, it introduced
freedom as part of a large scale political reform movement.
Freedom is not merely that which enables us to realize ourselves, but t
3 moments of Freedom
In America: no slavery, contracts
Justify actions by thinking about conclusions.
We have a role in society which we choose
There is another story, other than Abraham at the core of Kierkegaards book: erotic love.
He investigates what it means to be in love and make a passionate commitment to
Erotic Love as a Form of Subjectivity
I will therefore describe
Knight of Resignation
He has something that he is fully invested in and love them, then gives it all up.
Different than Hegel because he says to continuously pursue your passions.
Knight of Faith
Strength of the absurd.
The Absurd: For God all things are possible.
I nevertheless believe that I shall get her, namely on the strength of the absurd, on
the strength that for God all things are possible.
God is not a Being or a Creator God
Knight of Faith doesnt h
Midterm: Study power points, significance of quote, how does that fit into their
Knights of Resignation?
Snape loves Harrys mom. Die protecting Harry.
Hercules loves Meg.
Edward Cullen loves Bella. Renounces he
Literal: Every Man Dies for Himself Alone (problem: Enno Kluge)
Every Man chooses his death (problem: Enno Kluge, Ulrich Heffke, Anna Quangel)
Every man dies only for himself (e.g. Hegels useless death of Terror; your death
has no e
Interconnectedness through Motif
Trudel on the resistance cell:
weve formed a secret resistance cell in the factory, very small for now, three
men and me. A man came to us, and tried to explain it to me. He said we are like
good seeds in a fie
Are Anna and Otto heros? What does their different relationship to the cyanide capsule
reveal something about them?
No one can risk more than their lives. Heroic intentions, but they were not bol and
courageous enough. There are diff
Nothing entitles us to assume that man has a nature of essence in the same sense as
other things. (10)
Instead there are conditions of human existence: life itself, natality and mortality,
worldliness, plurality, and the
Distinguishes between the world and the earth.
Technology is outpacing speech
No communication for technological terminology.
Were getting to the point where we will have a world of laborers with no la
Rise of Society
Society is the ultimate threat to public space
Society is a specific historical way of relating
Summary of Society
Action is degraded to behavior. Behavior is predictable.
Politics is converted to administration. Just taking
Action frees itself from Labor insofar of the immediacy of your life.
Action has to look towards the future because thats how it frees itself to become
Our ability to produce has outpaced our ability to consume.
Doer of Goo
1609: Galileos Telescope (Originally invented by Hans Lippershey)
This invention was an event (Changed the human condition)
Galileos telescope (homo faber): challenge to the adequacy of the senses to
Two different aspects of action
Initiating something that is new and spontaneous.
Revealing that action to other people. Enters into the web of human relationships.
You can have a story told about yourself.
Arendt thinks science i
How to read The Life of the Mind
Presents the activity through other thinkers thoughts
If you dont know this thinker, find the phenomenon (e.g. thinking, willing, judging)
Result of Thinking
[Thinkings] criterion for action will not be the u
Importance of Thinking/Willing/Judging
The Life of the Mind opens a space where we can suspend the forces of the
social; not just emergency faculties, but they can be if necessary.
Each faculty plays a role in constructing a public where there
Philosophy as a Way of Life (phrase from Pierre Hadot)
Transition from picture of ourselves or truth to techniques of becoming
What norms and values does the subject have?
What techniques of self modification?
What sort of subject is produce
In The Life of the Mind Arendt discusses Will and its importance to thought and the vita
contemplativa. Will, which was nonexistent in the Greek polis, is the idea of being able to
come up with new ideas. Having a will makes one free to make the decision
In Lectures on Kants Political Philosophy Hannah Arendt begins discussing Kants
perception of judgment through his other works. She references Kants idea of sociability. Kant
said that no man can live alone and man must have a leader. With this statement
An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?
Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
Idea for the Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent
Critique of Pure Reason
All we can know comes from possible experiences
Kants Ideas on Enlightenment and Social Change
Word Count: 1572
During the Enlightenment period many philosophers were inspired to rethink the idea of
freedom using reason and the advancement of knowledge. Kants philosophy was a product
rational beings wi