Pwad 350 Chapter 5 Questions 3
What is containment? How did this American policy emerge, and how was it
implemented? What were Soviet responses?
-Containment was a strategy aimed at limiting communist expansion, not only in literal
geographic terms but mo
Pwad 350 Chapter 5
1) When did the Cold War Begin? When did it end? Why? What do realist, liberal, and
constructivist approaches contribute to your answers?
1947-1989 - began roughly with the end of WWII and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in
Pwad 350 Chapter 5 Questions 2
3) Why were leaders unable to restore a 19th-century-style concert system after WWII?
What sort of system evolved?
-Because of nuclear weapons: (p165) Unlike the 19th century balance-of-power system in which
5 great powers s
general knowledge of the management functions and principles can manage any type of
organization. He further advocated that these principles/functions can be le arned by
anybody who is interested. But qualities such as physical health, mental vigour, mora
everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to
predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, Controlling is the
process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made tow
iv. Messages can be distorted.
v. Specialization work can be achieved.
Factors influencing Span of Control
i. Managerial abilities- In the concerns where managers are capable, qualified and experienced,
wide span of control is always helpful.
systematize managerial behaviour. Another contributor to classical organization theory was Max
(a) Henry Fayol (1841-1925) and the Classical Organization Theory
Fayol believed that sound managerial practice falls into certain patterns that can be i
Legal authority and powerauthority and power rest in the institution of office. The power an
individual holds is legitimised in the office and does not personally belong to him. An Evaluation
of the Classical Organization Theories (also known as Classical
Is somewhat like management science but it mainly focuses on application. Main concern is the
processes and systems that an organization uses to transform inputs into outputs. Therefore it
will deal with decisions
3. Better discipline- The control is unified and concentrates on one person and therefore, he can
independently make decisions of his own. Unified control ensures better discipline.
4. Fixed responsibility- In this type of organization, every line executi
efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in achieving efficiency in the running
of a concern. This helps in avoiding wastage of time, money, effort, in avoidance of
duplication or overlapping of efforts and this helps in bringing smoothness in a
6. Changes in demand and prices- Change in fashion, change in tastes, change in income level,
demand falls, price falls, etc.
Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. It is a function in which the
synchronization and com
product of staff advice and counseling. The line officials feel dissatisfied and a feeling of distress
enters a concern. The satisfaction of line officials is very important for effective results
Functional organization has been di
achievement of organizational goals, social tie ups tends to built and therefore informal
organization helps to secure co-operation by which goals can be achieved smooth. Therefore, we
can say that informal organization emerges from formal organization.
5. Efficiency can be achieved through the features of specialization.
6. There are two lines of authority which flow at one time in a concern :
a. Line Authority
b. Staff Authority
7. Power of command remains with the line executive and staff serves only
b. It provides basis of controlling.
c. We cannot think of an effective system of controlling without existence of well thought out plans.
d. Planning provides pre-determined goals against which actual performance is compared.
e. In fact, planning and con
critical issues of concern. This way he is able to bring effectiveness in his work as well in
the work unit. This effectivity helps a manager to prove his ability and skills in the best
3. Delegation of authority is the ground on which the superio
Planning is the prima ry function of management / Primacy of Planning.
a. Planning lays foundation for other functions of management.
b. It serves as a guide for organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
c. All the functions of management are perf
the achievement of basic plans.
c. These detail plans include policies, procedures, rules, programmes, budgets, schedules,
etc. For example, if profit maximization is the main aim of the enterprise, derivative
plans will include sales maximization, produc
ensure mutual co-operation among individuals. Harmony of work is brought by higher
level managers exercising their authority over interconnected activities of lower level
Authority responsibility relationships can be fruitful only when there is a
management concern. Human relations is used to describe how managers interact with
subordinates when the management of people leads to better performance then there is good
human relations. When morale and efficiency deteriorate human relations in the org
a. Planning has tendency to make administration inflexible.
b. Planning implies prior determination of policies, procedures and programmes and a strict
adherence to them in all circumstances.
c. There is no scope for individual fre
e. Therefore with the help of planning, uncertainties can be forecasted which helps in preparing
standbys as a result, uncertainties are minimized to a great extent.
Planning facilitates co -ordination.
a. Planning revolves around organizational goals.
Planning is Flexible.
a. Planning is done for the future.
b. Since future is unpredictable, planning must provide enough room to cope with the changes in
customers demand, competition, govt. policies etc.
c. Under changed circumstances, the original plan
It is the legal right of a person or a superior to
command his subordinates.
It is the obligation of subordinate to perform the
work assigned to him.
Authority is attached to the position of a superior in
Responsibility arises out of superior-sub
are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.
Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry,
There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and
a. Planning is made to achieve desired objective of business.
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b. The goals established should general acceptance otherwise individual efforts & energies will go
misguided and misdirected.
c. Planning identifies the action
Line and staff organization is a modification of line organization and it is more complex than line
organization. According to this administrative organization, specialized and supportive activities
are attached to the line of command by appointing staff
sub areas: Scientific management, which historically focused on the work of individuals and
classical organization theory (administrative management which was concerned with how
organizations should be put together).
The main objecti
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chain of command facilitates work flow in an organization which helps in achievement of
effective results. As the authority flows from top to bottom, it clarifies the authority
positions to managers at all level and that f