Review questions: PNS and neural circuits
SOMATOSENSORY VS VISCERAL
1. How are sensory receptors classified based on their activating stimulus?
2. How is modality encoded by the nervous system?
a. By labeled line code:
i. Neural pathways from sen
The functions of the female reproductive
- Production of female gametes (oocytes)
- Synthesis of female sex hormones
- Reception of sperm cells from the male
- Nurturing the developing embryo
Female Reproductive Anatomy
Lateralization of the hemispheres
- Each hemisphere has abilities
not shared with its partner
- When you are right handed, the region
controlling the muscles involved in writing
is more developed in your left hemisphere
How the PNS and CNS work together
Sensation- Perception- Response
- Sensory receptors
- Sensory (ascending)
- Motor (descending)
- To list the four
Describe how the number of egg germ cells changes over
female life. Why imp?
Rapidly increases during gestation (when in the womb) then starts to decrease
around halfway through gestation throughout remainder of life
Shows women have limited supply of e
BIOL 252 SI 9/24/15
- To compare and contrast the
structures and functions of the
different types of blood vessels
- To define the determinants that influence
blood flow in the circulatory system
_Pressure gradient-is t
Describe gastric contractile activity. Why imp?
Peristaltic waves move toward pylorus at rate of 3 per minute via smooth
These waves electrical rhythm are regulated by pacemaker cells
A: Permit food to move through our body
HALLOWEEN IS UPON US
Go over the cardiovascular system (heart, blood
Go over the integumentary system (epidermis,
The Skeletal System
The anatomy of the bone organ and tissue
- Major features of the long bones
- Composition of the bone and cartilage tissues
- How the bone responds to external forces
The development of the bone
- How the bone develops during embryogen
Review questions: the brain
1. How are the sensory cortices different from the sensory association areas?
a. Sensory cortices: involved in conscious awareness of sensation, responsible for
sensory awareness (I am touching something, act of feeling)
Review questions: The Endocrine System
1. How are the amino acid-based and the steroid hormones different from each other (e.g.
chemical properties; transport in the blood; interactions with target cells)?
Amino Acid Based Hormones
Review questions: muscular system
1. A sarcomere is the distance between two Protein complexes called Z lines
2. Why do we need calcium channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum? Calcium is needed for
release into the sarcoplasm, it binds to troponin and cau
Review questions: fundamentals of the nervous system
-Why is the highest density of v-g channels on the nodes of ranvier?
1. Explain the functional divisions of the nervous system. Include the subdivisions of each.
a. PNS: cranial nerves, spinal nerves, n
Review questions: Urinary system
1. We had this question before and it is still relevant: During stress, blood flow to the kidney
is almost completely blocked via constriction of the relevant arteries. Therefore, the
blood pressure in the capillaries of t
Review questions: digestive system
1. What structural modification underlies the stomachs ability to mechanically digest food?
a. Internal oblique muscles for churning
2. What is the role of the intrinsic factor?
a. Intrinsic factor is secreted by the par
Review questions: the respiratory system
1. How do we protect ourselves from having microorganisms and dust particles passing
through the respiratory membrane?
2. What structures make up the respiratory membrane? What is its function?
3. The pleural fluid
Review questions: the vascular system
1. John hates going to the mall for shopping. He doesnt mind the shopping itself, but after
standing in line in so many shops for so long, he comes back home with his feet swollen
and painful. His friend, who is takin
Review questions: blood and heart
1. When and how does erythropoietin regulate hematopoiesis?
a. RBCs/erythrocytes: (1( pick up O2 from lungs and deliver it to tissues elsewhere,
(2) pick up CO2 from tissues and unload it in the lungs
b. Hematopoiesis: bl
Review questions: the lymphatic and immune systems
1. Why do we lose blood from our capillaries? How do we gain back the blood at the
venous end of the capillary?
a. Blood vessels are loose/leaky, POROUS water molecules are easily lost to the
Review questions: the integumentary system
1. How is body temperature regulated by the skin?
a. Thermoreceptors on skin detect chane
b. Chilling: body retains heat by constricting blood vessels of the dermiskeeps
warmer blood deeper in body
Review questions: skeletal system
1. Describe the cells and the matrix of the bone tissue.(chondrocytes, osteoblasts, etc. what
do they do
a. Cells of Bone Tissue:
b. Cells of Matrix:
2. What membrane lines the internal canals and the small cavities of th
Exam in less than a week, you all will do
Sleep 7-9 hrs a night
Make your own practice problems regardi