CHEM 181
September 27, 2002
Gas Constants: Boltzmann constant:
MIDTERM #1
8.31451 J K1 mol1, 8.20578 x 102 L atm K1 mol1, 1.98722 cal K1 mol1 1.3806 x 10-23 J K1 1 atm = 101325 Pa
1. 2.
(2 pt) State the 1st Law of Thermodynamics a.) (8 pts) Sketch a singl
Exam II - October 17,2007
C hern 4 81 - Prof. T . B aer
(Please print your name)
Useful and essential information:
R = 0.082 L-At/mK = 8.314 J/mK P = RT/(V-b) - aJV2 PV = RT[1 + (b - aIRT)V 1 + ( bN)2 . ] The following two lines refer to the properties o
Part 1: Equilibrium
1
The properties of gases
Solutions to exercises
Discussion questions
E1.1(b) The partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases is the pressure the gas would exert if it occupied alone the same container as the mixture at the same te
Mixing: Fundamental Equations
5-1
Homogenous Functions: These functions are of a specific mathematical type known
as homogeneous functions. A function f(a,b,c,x1,x2, ) is homogeneous of degree k
if:
f( a, b,c , x1 , x2 ,.) k f(a,b,c, x1 , x2 ,.)
Intensi
Fundamental Equations (Pure Substances)
Step 1. Write down differential forms
Internal Energy (dU)
st
Start with the 1 Law
dU dq dw
dU TdS PdV
Enthalpy (dH)
Start with the definition of H H U PV
dH dU PdV VdP
dH TdS PdV PdV VdP
dH TdS VdP
Helmholtz Energy
CHAPTER 1: Problems
REAL AND IDEAL GASES
Book Problems
Exercises: 1-7, 14-20; Numerical Problems: 6, 9, 15
Note: Numerical problem #6 is not in solution manual. Ans: p(N2)=0.33 atm, p(NH3)=1.33 atm
Supplemental Problems
1)
Consider a gas with the followin
Chapter 3- The Second Law
4-1
GETTING STARTED
The 2nd Law of thermodynamics deals with predicting the spontaneity of a process.
For the purposes of thermodynamics, we define.
Spontaneous process
A direction of change that does not require work to
bring i
1-1
Chapter 1: Properties of Gases
Gases are the most tractable state of matter to describe, and our goal is to
develop simple models (EOS) that can be used to predict their properties.
Real Gas
Sample
Experimentally
Observed Properties
Compare
Molecular
Exam II October 21, 2009 Chem 481 Prof. T. Baer Useful and essential information:
R = 0.082 L-At/mK = 8.314 J/mK P = RT/(V-b) - a/V2 fHo[H2O(s)] = -291.8 kJ/
_
(Please print your name)
PV = RT[1 + (b a/RT)V-1 + (b/V)2 ] Pv298 = .032 atm
The following two
Chapter 1- Equations of State
GETTING STARTED
Consider the following. You have a beaker filled with two chemical substances, A & B.
1-1
The goal of thermodynamics is to develop a theoretical framework that can predict whether or not A & B spontaneously mi
Chapter 2- The First Law
GETTING STARTED
2-1
As stated earlier (chapter 1), as far as thermodynamics is concerned, the universe can be separated into two parts: (1) the System (part we care about) and (2) the Surroundings (everything else). The First Law
Chapter 3- The First Law (cont)
CALCULATING MEASURABLE CHANGE
3-1
Calculating Change along a Path: Consider calculating the change in elevation during a hike h = hi
i Change in elev for each step along path
=
f
i
dh
f
i
dh height differential: infinitesim
Chapter 2- Thermochemistry
Use calorimetry to measure the heat (q) produced or absorbed by a chemical or physical process. We can then equate q with either U if process is carried out at constant V H if process is carried out at constant P Conversely, if
Chapter 5- The Second Law
GETTING STARTED
5-1
The 2nd Law of thermodynamics deals with predicting the spontaneity of a process. For the purposes of thermodynamics, we define. Spontaneous process A direction of change that does not require work to bring it
Chapter 6- Chemical Equilibrium
NOTE: You should read AND understand Section 5.1 and 6.7 (Standard Reaction Entropies and Gibbs Energies). I do not plan on covering this material in class.
4-1
HELMHOLTZ AND GIBBS ENERGIES
To use S as a signpost for sponta
1
Mathematical Formulas for Physical Chemistry
where i = -1 sin x = (1/2i)[eix - e-ix] cos x = (1/2)[eix + e-ix] cosh x = (1/2)[ex + e-x]
Trigometric Formulas:
eix = cos x + isin x e-ix = cos x - isin x sinh x = (1/2)[ex - e-x]
Power Series Expansions:
(a
Kinetic Molecular Theory Chapter 21
3RT where u = average speed and M = Mol.Wt. M [u is actually the root mean square (rms) speed] Lets derive the famous equation: u = Force Area But what causes this Force? It is the collisions that the gas molecules make
Exam II October 17, 2007 Chem 481 Prof. T. Baer Useful and essential information:
R = 0.082 L-At/mK = 8.314 J/mK P = RT/(V-b) - a/V2 fHo[H2O(s)] = -291.8 kJ/
_
(Please print your name)
PV = RT[1 + (b a/RT)V-1 + (b/V)2 ]
The following two lines refer to th
2-1
Chapter 2- The First Law
THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS
For the purpose of thermodynamics, the universe is divided into two parts.
System: The part of the universe
that we are interested in.
Boundary
Surroundings: Everything else
The system and surroundings ar