BIOL 4250 Final Exam Review
I. Biochemical Testing
a. Be sure you know what positive and negative
results look like
b. Be sure you know what the result means
c. Media you are responsible for:
PR + sugar
Bacteria of the Mouth
The mouth supports billions of microbes. Some are residents and some are transients
carried in on food. The normal oral flora is composed of many different species. Of particular
interest are species of the genus St
Your TA will give you background information on conjugation and the organisms
that you will use. Be sure to record notes in your lab notebook.
Our purpose is to genetically alter a strain of Escherichia coli using conjugation.
You are about to proceed on a great adventure! A microscope is one of the most
useful tools a microbiologist has when trying to visualize any microbes present.
Proper microscope use is one the most important skills that a beginning
We are continuing our look at staining techniques by examining the Acid Fast
stain and the endospore stain. Both of these are examples of differential
staining techniques. Remember that you need to prepare a smear prior to any
1. Oxidation-Fermentation Test: The OF test is designed to differentiate bacteria on the basis of
fermentative or oxidative metabolism of glucose. A pH indicator is used to detect acid production.
At neutral pH, the media is
Microbes are everywhere. We rarely notice them because they are too tiny for us to see
individually without the aid of a microscope, or without first growing them to large
numbers at which point they can be observed with the unaided, na
Starch hydrolysis: The polysaccharide Starch is broken down by the enzyme, amylase.
Starch agar medium is inoculated with organisms and incubated at 37C. The reagent
iodine will then be added to test for the presence of starch
As you learned in Lab 1, microbes are typically found in mixed cultures and the streak plate
technique is used to obtain and/or ensure that a culture is pure. We can use special media to
assist in the isolation process. Some types of medi
Inducing Lambda Prophage by UV Irradiation
Many strains of bacteria are lysogenized, although few may be recognized as
such. A lysogenized bacterium is one that harbors and maintains a prophage as
an integral part of its chromosome. A pro