Earth Structures: Compression and extension of the earth's crust creates folds,
and faults. Joints represent a third and nearly ubiquitous class of earth structure.
A. Describing the geometry of rock structures:
strike - orientati
GEOMORPHOLOGY: The study of landforms
landform: a landscape element composed of earth materials, that can be
observed in its entirety, and that has consistence of form or regular change of
- their shapes and sizes (configuration)
Plate tectonics explanations for the locations of volcanic chains, mobile belts (Mtns; ancient
and new) and other uplifted areas, and the major topographic features of oceans: trenches
and mid-ocean ridges with transform faults.
BASIC THEORY AND PRINCIPLES
Landform properties are dictated by the interplay of driving
forces(e.g., gravity, solar energy) and resisting forces (e.g.,
friction, cohesion, chemical weathering resistance) over time.
Dating Geomorphic Features (Geochronology)
2 types of dating methods:
Relative methods that place landforms in time only relative to the ages of other
landforms or historical events.
Absolute methods that place a numerical age (ex., 5,000 years) on a land
Intrusive Igneous and Volcanic Landforms
Igneous Rock Bodies
A. 2 types:
1. Intrusive (Plutonic)
- magma bodies emplaced below ground; cool slowly to produce
large mineral grains
- classified according to shape (tabular vs. massive vs. lensshaped) and ori
Distribution and Importance of glaciers
Generally, glaciers may occur anywhere on land that the typical year is
characterized by incomplete melting of winter snowfall during the warm season,
and enough precipitation that snow accumulati
WEATHERING, SOILS AND KARST
Weathering: the physical and chemical breakdown of rock materials at or
near the earths surface.
break large fragments into smaller fragments which may be easily
2 basic types of weathering: Mechanical and Chemical