Disorders of the Bladder
and Lower Urinary Tract
Begins when the bladder contains 150 to 250 mL of
Urine produced in the kidneys ureters the bladder
fills with urine
Bladder and Urethra Nerves
Respiratory Tract Infections,
Neoplasms, and Childhood
Upper Respiratory Viruses in Adults
The Common Cold
Occur in early fall and late spring in persons between
ages 5 and 40
Disorders of Ventilation and
Hypoxemia Too little O2 in blood
Can result in cyanosis
Impaired function of vital centers
Agitated or combative behavior, euphoria, impaired
judgment, convulsions, delirium, stupor, coma
Chapter 23 Homework
1. Pleural, musculoskeletal, and myocardial pain are similar in description and almost
impossible to differentiate.
2. Extrinsic or atopic asthma is typically initiated by a type I hypersensitivity reaction induced
Chapter 18 Homework
1. HDL is known as the bad cholesterol.
2. Most abdominal aneurysms are asymptomatic.
3. Primary (essential) hypertension is characterized by chronic elevation in blood pressure that
results from some other disorder, such as
Heart Failure and Circulatory
Compensation in Heart Failure
Types of Heart Failure
Systolic (HFrEF) or diastolic (HFpEF) failure
Is the heart failing to pump out enough blood or
failing to accept enough blood from the body/lungs?
Acute Kidney Injury and
Chronic Kidney Disease
When Kidneys Fail
Less waste is removed; more waste remains in blood
Unable to regulate fluid, electrolyte, and pH balance
Acute versus chronic
Nitrogenous compounds build up in the blood
Chapter 22 Homework
1. Bacteria are the most frequent cause of respiratory tract infections.
2. Influenza is a viral infection that can affect the upper and lower respiratory tracts and is
transmitted by aerosol or direct contact.
3. Primary tu
Chapter 19 Homework
1. Pericarditis represents an inflammatory process of the myocardium.
2. All types of angina represent an acute myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack.
3. The heart extracts and uses 60% to 80% of oxygen in bloo
Chapter 20 Homework
1. Decreased cardiac output will lead to an increase in renal blood flow and glomerular
2. The endothelins are potent vasodilators that are released from the endothelial cells
throughout the circulation.
Introduction to Pathophysiology
Cellular and organ changes that occur with disease and the associated
effects on total body function.
Interruption, cessation, or disorder of a body system or organ structure
Disorders of White Blood Cells
and Lymphoid Tissues
Developmental Stages of Blood Cells
White Blood Cells Differential Staining
White Blood Cells: Granulocytes
Neutrophils: Primary pathogen-fighting cells
Also known as polymorphonuclear leuko
Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Two alpha chains
Two beta chains
Each protein chain holds one iron-containing heme
Oxygen binds to the heme groups.
Disorders of Nutritional Status
A calorie is energy measured in heat units
The amount of heat or energy required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of water 1C
Metabolism is the breakdown of nutrients.
Stress and Adaptation
The body requires that a level of homeostasis or
constancy be maintained during changes in internal
and external environments.
Example: Negative Feedback Contr
Disorders of the Immune
Excessive or inappropriate activation of the immune
The body is damaged by the immune response, rather
than by the antigen.
Type I Hypersensitivity
Commonly called allergic