Experimental Psychology Today
Science began as a leisure activity by and for the privileged and is now looked to as a source
of wealth and as a way to address the worlds problems
Where Research Happens:
Research Methods in Psychology: Unit 1
You are strongly recommended to take notes during every lecture and to read the entirety of Chapters
1, 2, and 3, as this will lead to the best understanding of the material. Exam questions specifically will be
Research Methods in Psychology: Unit 2
Lecture 1 (Chapter 4)
Be broadly familiar with how researchers develop, test, and measure theoretical constructs.
Be familiar with nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales of measurement.
Be familiar with frequen
Research Methods in Psychology
Final Exam Study Guide
Be familiar with correlational research, including the correlation coefficient (r) and the
coefficient of determination (R2). Also be familiar with what the exact value of r indicates about
Chapter 5 (Lectures 2 & 6)
Research that involves obtaining self-report data from a large number of people,
preferably via random sampling.
Measures phenomena that cannot be observed; is practical to conduct.
o What is the inci
Chapter 3: Ethics in Research
When Researchers Go Bad:
Although perhaps everyone agrees on the importance of ethics, not everyone practices
Tuskegee Syphilis Study:
o 400 poor African Americans were purposely infected with syphilis & falsely
The Scientific Method
Actively seeks out truth, rather than accepts if from guesswork or authority
Beliefs are based on direct observation (publicly verifiable; repeatable).
Actively encourages self-correction, rather than tries to make the facts fit a
Validity: The degree to which observations or methods are sound and reveal the truth.
Predictive Validity: The measure can accurately predict certain outcomes.
o Example: College Admissions
Look at GPA, ACT Scores to determine admissi
Exam 2 Review
Example: A study is conducted to determine the effect of sugar on childrens activity
level. The children drink an orange-flavored breakfast drink containing 0.00g, 6.25g, or
50.00g of sucrose.
o What are the theoretica
How does qualitative research differ from quantitative research?
A Challenge for Researchers
o Evidence emerges that mild traumatic brain injury can have severe cognitive effects.
o Research must:
Define and characterize the phenome
Types of Research:
Basic research (relates to theories)
o Why is this happening
Applied research (solve a problem)
o Ex: Autistic child making eye contact
Treatment that will solve problem
Samples and Populations:
Lets say a psychologist is interested in how nonphysical variables affect attractiveness.
What these variables are, and how they work, may vary as a function of age, gender,
Rather than ask participants what they value, she has the
Chapter 6 (Lectures 3 & 4)
Example of Experiments:
We want to examine the effectiveness of a new antidepressant.
o What do we need to do to conclusively determine whether or not the drug works?
o Complications: (Potential Confounds)
People w/ depression
Types of Experiments
o Source of error is individual differences.
o Solution is random assignment.
o Sources of error are order effects, time of measurement, subject attrition, carryover
o Solution is counterbal
Do dogs resemble their owners?
o Eye Region (experiment)
Step 1: Visit dog festival, take pictures of purebred dogs & their owners
Step 2: Edit pictures / remove background
Step 3: Create 20 dog-owner pairs and 20 dog-non-owner pa
Research with Single Participants
Two basic approaches:
o Case study: Descriptive, non-experimental
o Experimental single-subject design: Meets criteria for a true experiment
Intensive study of subject with unusual characteristics
A study was conducted on the effects of watching either a violent or nonviolent TV show
on the frequency of aggressive acts during playtime in 6- year old males and females.
o What type of research design was used? (Picture on phone)
2 X 2 Fa
Chapter 4 (Lectures 1 & 5)
Conceptualization & Measurement
Theoretical Construct: An abstraction or concept used to describe or explain a set of
o Five factor Theory:
Exam 3 Study Guide
Be familiar with factorial designs (in general), including the nomenclature used to describe them.
Be familiar with the reasons why factorial designs may be chosen over simple between-groups or
within-groups experiments (of