North America, Europe, Asia
Africa, South America, Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, Madagascar
Paleognaths. "old jaw"
More complex, articulated, & reptilian jaws. Includes orders stuthioniformes & tinamiformes
Shared and derived (from the most recent common ancestor) characteristic of all the organisms of a given
A trait that is shared but not derived
List synapomorphies of birds
3) Furcula (wishbone)
1. somatic cells
2. sex cell (also called germ cells and Gametes)
What are the two fundamental cell types?
-chromosomes exist as homologous pairs
-share the same genes
a display of the chromosomes pairs of a
The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
Speciation via geographic isolation. Usually occurs through dispersal and colonization (ex: islands) or
habitat fragmentation (ex: formation of a new mountain range)
What physiological similarities do birds have with reptiles?
-scutellate tarsus (top of foot covered in scale-like scutes)
-yolked, polar eggs
-nucleated red blood cells (some reptiles)
How are birds' skulls similar to reptiles'?