Citral Notes and Postlab Questions
1. Be sure to read the safety alert.
2. The setup for the steam distillation will actually be a simple distillation. It
is still a steam distillation because water is being codistilled with
TLC Prelab Questions
1. Explain the purpose of the saturated filter paper placed in a TLC jar.
2. Arrange the following in order of expected Rf value using 90:10 hexane:ethyl
acetate as the eluting solvent and provide your rationale.
This link is for a chem class in another university. They are using a different book, but so far the
two books have matched for the first 4 chapters. Use this site for future Exams.
250 points total
Section Day and Time_
1. You have an unknown substance that melts at approximately 132 C. Both transcinnamic acid and urea melt around this temperature. Describe how you could use
melting points to determin
Prelab Dehydration of Alcohols
1. What is the function of the acid catalyst in promoting the dehydration of alcohols?
2. Why would concentrated hydrochloric acid be an inappropriate catalyst for the
dehydration of alcohols?
3. Why is the formation o
Extraction Prelab Questions
1. When your unknown mixture is dissolved in ether and then extracted with
aqueous HCl, which layer is the aqueous layer: the top or the bottom layer?
2. If your unknown mixture contains the following components
Citral Prelab Questions
Questions 1 and 3 may be answered by marking (T) or (F) in the space provided for each
part to indicate whether the statement is true or false.
1. Steam distillation would be the procedure of choice for separating m
Dehydration of 4-methyl-2-pentanol
Gas Chromatography Background
In this experiment you will be analyzing the product mixture by gas chromatography to
determine the ratio of products formed. The following is basic information on how the
This work will be done individually, not in partners. We will be repeating the extraction
experiment with the following modifications.
1. You will be given 1.1 g of the product mixture rather than 1.5 g. The amounts of
1. Boiling water and steam can cause severe burns.
2. Ethanol is flammable. Avoid open flames and do not use a hot plate to heat ethanol.
3. Do not add decolorizing carbon to a boiling solution.
4. Wear latex gloves when pouring
Distillation: Separation of Liquids
Distillation is a technique used to separate two or more liquids by boiling the mixture and
collecting the components in a receiver using a condenser. Distillation separates compounds
based on the differences in boiling
1. Make a table containing your three components with their final masses, %
recovery, melting point, literature melting point.
2. NaCl is produced in both neutralization reactions. Explain how it is removed
from the purified products. (
Extraction involves a system of two insoluble solvents where a compound has a stronger affinity
for dissolving in one of these solvents. This process is typically done with a separatory funnel
Since the solvents are i