Final Exam practice test
1. Determine the empirical formula for a compound that is 36.86% N and 63.14% )
b. N2O c. NO3
2. How many atoms of carbon are contained in 47.6 g od Al 2(CO3)3? The molar
mass of Al2(CO3)3 is 233.99 g/mol.
Large amount of homework causes increased stress in college students.
1) Amount of homework
a. A lot
2) Year of student
3) Time homework is being done
-Has a law of multiple proportions
-Elements can combine in more than one way
-But the ratio between the elements are in whole numbers
*Elements that exist naturally as 2 atoms bound
Proton: 1.0073(1) Nucleus
Density = mass/ volume
D= m/v g/mL or g/cm
1mL = 1cm
M=d (x) v
Unit less value
Density of substance/ density of water
Energy -Capacity to do work
-Potential Energy- stored energy
-an objects capacity to move
Democritus around 400 BCE
If you keep dividing matter you would eventually get to indivisible actions
Aristole 400 BCE
Matter infinitely divisible
Earth, Water, Fire, Air
Mixture- 2 or more substances
Avogadros Number 6.02x 10^23
So a mole of water is 6.02 x 1023 molecules of water, which works out to be about 18 grams, or 18 mL. A
mole of aluminum is about 26 grams. But to really appreciate how many molecules are in a mole it helps
to think about thin
Visit Learning Commons frequently to receive help do not go without help or your grade will
Top hat response system is worth 5%
Final Exam 20%
Attendance is mandatory
You can miss one and still pass but DO NOT DO IT!
You miss t
-Arranged elements by mass
-He noticed certain properties repeated
-started a new line every time that happened
-Each new line of repeated properties = new period
-Solid at room temperature and they are gonna be shiny
Elementary Chemistry 8/24/16
1). Observation: Data collected through senses but can be enhanced through instrumentation.
-Be able to be reproduced.
2). Based off your observation, make a hypothesis.
Hypothesis: Is a statement that explains your observatio
Elementary Chemistry Notes- September 9, 2016
Oxygen- 8 electrons
*Last row of the periodic table are your noble gases.
Valence Electrons = Outer Most
[ highest energy]
Neon is 10 electrons and tha
Analysis of Nitrate in water samples taken from rivers that lead into
Nitrate is considered a contaminate in water that we use for everyday life. Sewagerunoffs and pesticides can add Nitrate to water source
Pos H and S mean what?
1. Nonspontaneous at low
2. Spontaneous at high
Factors that effect entropy
2. More complex molecules
3. Higher molecular weight
Nonstandard Delta Grxn formula
Grnx + R T Ln(Q)
S sys < 0 (negative)
A decrease in Gibbs free energy (G<0) means:
An Increase in Gibbs free energy (G>0) means:
Neg H and Pos S mean what?
Spontaneous at all temps
Pos H and Neg S mean what?
Nonspontaneous at all temps
Neg H and S mean what?
Practical Aspects of Light Absorption
We can go to the laboratory and conduct the following experiment. Place an absorbing specimen
normal to a beam of monochromatic radiation from a continuously operating source and measure the
CHAPTER 10: Electron Spin
HW: 1, 3, 5, 11, 18, 22
So far, we mentioned only orbital angular momentum.
Electron also has intrinsic angular momentum: spin angular
Question 1: What is the color of sodium in flame? Why?
Yellow color of sodium in fla
CHAPTER 11 : Many-Electron Atoms
Homework: 1, 6, 13, 22, 25, 29
THINGS COVERED: - HartreeFock method
- Atomic terms, levels and states
Question1: How does the Hamiltonian operator for an n-electron atom look
2 2 Ze'2 +
i r r
Chapter 8. The Varia.on Method
HW: 2, 4, 7, 9, 16, 25, 28, 32
The varia.on method allows us to es.mate the ground-
state energy of a system without
solving the Schrodinger equa.on. It uses an approximate wavefunc.on to g
Chapter 6: The Hydrogen Atom
Homework: 1, 3, 8, 15, 17, 21, 28, 47 (Numerov), 54
Two-particle rigid rotor
Solution of Schrodinger equation for H-atom
Chapter 6: The Hydrogen Atom
Hydrogen atom and similar systems (He+, Li2+) can be solve
CHAPTER 12: MOLECULAR SYMMETRY
HOMEWORK: 2, 7, 9, 11, 14, 19, 26, 27, 31, 32
SYMMETRY IS BEAUTIFUL
creatures appraise the overall worthiness of a potential mate by
looking for at least one classic benchmark of beauty: symmetry.
NY Times (Feb 8, 1994): W