What is it?
Why is it taken?
An illegal stimulant in
the form of a white
To obtain a high
To manage pain, taken in
large amounts for a high
much like heroin
Depressed breathing can
be life threatening
a. Igneous- molten lava cools and solidifies (NO fossils, CAN date) DATE
b. Sedimentary- formed when sediments deposit in layers (YES fossils, CANT
date) FOSSILS FROM SEDIMENTARY
c. Metamorphic- formed @ high temp/pressure (NO fossils, CANT
Biol 214 Genes, Evolution and Ecology
Fall 2014 Learning Goals part 1:
Reading Assignment Chapter 20 in 2nd/21 (3nd edition).
1. Define evolution and give an example of phenotypic change that is not evolution.
Adaptive advantage of bacterial genes grouped into an operon
a. can readily adapt to changes in the environment
b. Puts functionally related genes under the control of a single on-off switch
-controls which enzymes to break down and what molecules to acce
AP Biology, Chapter 16 (FOR ME)
Regulation of Gene Expression
Conducting the Genetic Orchestra
18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription
1. Briefly describe two main strategies that cells use to control metaboli
B4 Mendel, there was Blending Theory of Heredity proposed that hereditary material from
each parent mixes in the offspring; once blended the hereditary material is inseparable and
offsprings traits are an intermediate b/w parental types
-individuals in po
Experiments that established DNA as hereditary molecule:
GRIFFITH- studied conversion of nonvirulent R form of bacterium to virument S form
1. smooth strain -S- has polysaccharide capsule =VIRULENT
2. rough strain -R- no polysaccharide capsule
15.1 Connection b/w DNA RNA Protein
Beadle & Tatum show there is direct relationship b/w genes and enzymes.
^called one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
2 major steps for gene polypeptide: transcription and translation
TRANSCRIPTION: mechanism by which DNA RNA
Steps of DNA Replication:
1. DNA Helicase unwinds DNA. Primases synthesize short RNA primers from 5 to 3.
direction of unwinding on the leading strand template
Topoisomerase prevents twisting ahead of replication fork as DNA unwinds.
2. DNA Polymerase ii
starts at 1)
.1 (just egg
.4 X.1 = .04
across all life
tadpole is .1
adult is .4
Ro = 0+0+2=2 this pop
Meiosis separates homologous pairs, reducing the diploid (2n) # of chromosomes to haploid (n)
number, each gamete produced by meiosis receives only ONE member of homologous pair.
Mechanisms of Meiosis-takes places in GONADS testes of male, ovaries
Character- a heritable feature
Trait- each variant of a character (ex: colors)
True-breeding- self-pollinated plants
Hybridization -the crossing of two varieties
Monohybrid cross- tracks the inheritance of a single character (flower color)
A nucleotide consists of three things:
1. A nitrogenous base, which can be either adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (in the
case of RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil).
2. A five-carbon sugar, called deoxyribose because it is lacking an oxygen group
Nucleotide consists of 3 pts. linked by covalent bonds
-called nucleoside phosphates
1. nitrogenous base
2. pentose sugar
3. 1-3 phosphate groups
Pyrimidines- C, T ONE C-N RING
Purines- A,G TWO C-N RINGS
Chargaff (biochemist) measured amounts of nitrogeno
Post Exam 3 Bio Notes
Ecology matters for many things it can be used to care about outbreak of disease
very simple modification by humans on the environment can cause major changes
observed in lakes where it was divided
Biological Species Concept: reproductive isolation distinguish different species
- can they mate and produce viable offspring?
-Morphological: share measurable traits that distinguish them from other species
Tergene Biotech is a hot biotech startup that was started in 2008 and based in India.
Their key focus is on bacterial vaccines, therapeutic proteins, thrombolytic enzymes, and
carrier proteins (BIRAC). The biggest innovation they have created so far is pr
Case #1 - Organizing for Innovation at Glenmark
1. In 2004, Glenmark started to diversify from generics into discovery research. What was
its business model in each sector and what capabilities did it need to succeed (30 points)?
Do you think
Kidney, GI tract, glucose metabolism, and part of tomorrows lecture
Renal Functions Clearance, reabsorption, regulation
Regulation of BP and plasma osmolarity
GI tract physiology motility, secretion, digestion, absorption
Case #3 Due at February 6th at 5pm
1. Since vaccines have a different purpose than pharmaceuticals, the marketing strategy must
be different as well. Vaccines are more of a preventative measure while pharmaceuticals are
drugs used to cure or
-4 Highs of Pharma: R&D, price, profits, -Drugs approvals declined after 1962 b/c manufacturing process. Ex. 108 patents
marketing -R&D increased but output is Kefauver-Harris Amendments (firms have on 2 drugs
to prove substantial evidence of
Abel Dawit, Kelly Laroe, Jessica Zeng
Final Playlist Project
1) Antonin Dvorak - Slavonic Dances, Op.72, No.2 in E minor:
2) Bohemian Music - My Plump Darling or M panenko boub
Biology 214 Lab 1
Laboratory Techniques Homework
1. Which pipet do you use to pipet 15uL?
a. P-20 pipet
2. Which pipet do you use to pipet 120uL?
a. P-200 pipet
3. Which pipet do you use to pipet 475uL?
a. P-1000 pipet
4. Which pipet do you use to pipet 3
Biology 214 Lab 1
Laboratory Techniques Homework
Which pipet do you use to pipet 15uL?
Which pipet do you use to pipet 120uL?
Which pipet do you use to pipet 475uL?
Which pipet do you use to pipet 3.4uL?
Which pipet do you use to pipet 6