What is it?
Why is it taken?
An illegal stimulant in
the form of a white
To obtain a high
To manage pain, taken in
large amounts for a high
much like heroin
Depressed breathing can
be life threatening
The study of the mechanism of heredity
Nuclei of all human cells (except gametes)
contain 46 chromosomes
Sex chromosomes determine the genetic sex
(XX = female, XY = male)
Karyotype the diploid chromosomal
complement displayed in
Exercise 32: Blood
Boise State University
Anatomy of blood
of blood vessels
3 tunic layers
Tunica intima or interna
Lines the lumen of blood
Nucleotide consists of 3 pts. linked by covalent bonds
-called nucleoside phosphates
1. nitrogenous base
2. pentose sugar
3. 1-3 phosphate groups
Pyrimidines- C, T ONE C-N RING
Purines- A,G TWO C-N RINGS
Chargaff (biochemist) measured amounts of nitrogeno
A nucleotide consists of three things:
1. A nitrogenous base, which can be either adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (in the
case of RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil).
2. A five-carbon sugar, called deoxyribose because it is lacking an oxygen group
Character- a heritable feature
Trait- each variant of a character (ex: colors)
True-breeding- self-pollinated plants
Hybridization -the crossing of two varieties
Monohybrid cross- tracks the inheritance of a single character (flower color)
Meiosis separates homologous pairs, reducing the diploid (2n) # of chromosomes to haploid (n)
number, each gamete produced by meiosis receives only ONE member of homologous pair.
Mechanisms of Meiosis-takes places in GONADS testes of male, ovaries
starts at 1)
.1 (just egg
.4 X.1 = .04
across all life
tadpole is .1
adult is .4
Ro = 0+0+2=2 this pop
Steps of DNA Replication:
1. DNA Helicase unwinds DNA. Primases synthesize short RNA primers from 5 to 3.
direction of unwinding on the leading strand template
Topoisomerase prevents twisting ahead of replication fork as DNA unwinds.
2. DNA Polymerase ii
15.1 Connection b/w DNA RNA Protein
Beadle & Tatum show there is direct relationship b/w genes and enzymes.
^called one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
2 major steps for gene polypeptide: transcription and translation
TRANSCRIPTION: mechanism by which DNA RNA
Experiments that established DNA as hereditary molecule:
GRIFFITH- studied conversion of nonvirulent R form of bacterium to virument S form
1. smooth strain -S- has polysaccharide capsule =VIRULENT
2. rough strain -R- no polysaccharide capsule
B4 Mendel, there was Blending Theory of Heredity proposed that hereditary material from
each parent mixes in the offspring; once blended the hereditary material is inseparable and
offsprings traits are an intermediate b/w parental types
-individuals in po
AP Biology, Chapter 16 (FOR ME)
Regulation of Gene Expression
Conducting the Genetic Orchestra
18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental change by regulating transcription
1. Briefly describe two main strategies that cells use to control metaboli
Adaptive advantage of bacterial genes grouped into an operon
a. can readily adapt to changes in the environment
b. Puts functionally related genes under the control of a single on-off switch
-controls which enzymes to break down and what molecules to acce
Biol 214 Genes, Evolution and Ecology
Fall 2014 Learning Goals part 1:
Reading Assignment Chapter 20 in 2nd/21 (3nd edition).
1. Define evolution and give an example of phenotypic change that is not evolution.
a. Igneous- molten lava cools and solidifies (NO fossils, CAN date) DATE
b. Sedimentary- formed when sediments deposit in layers (YES fossils, CANT
date) FOSSILS FROM SEDIMENTARY
c. Metamorphic- formed @ high temp/pressure (NO fossils, CANT
Post Exam 3 Bio Notes
Ecology matters for many things it can be used to care about outbreak of disease
very simple modification by humans on the environment can cause major changes
observed in lakes where it was divided
Biological Species Concept: reproductive isolation distinguish different species
- can they mate and produce viable offspring?
-Morphological: share measurable traits that distinguish them from other species
Evolution, what is NOT evolution?
Evolution is genetic change in a population over time.
Not all phenotypic change over generations is evolutionary. For example, human height
has increased dramatically in developed countries over the last 100 years, no