List the three domains into which all living organisms are currently classified. Correctly place
living organisms that you know of into the correct domain.
-Archae, bachteria, eucharia
Define biological evolution and explain two examples where it has been
2. To form a covalent bond between two monomers, an OH group is
removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen atom (H) is removed
from the other, dehydration eaction. Catalysis. Cells disassemble
polymers into their constituent monomers by reversing the
Describe what occurs during a chemical reaction, including the causes.
-Chemical Reactions. Let's start with the idea of a chemical reaction. Reactions occur when two
or more molecules interact and the molecules change. Bonds between atoms are broken and
Read the syllabus and be able to answer the following questions:
What is the format of this course and the rationale behind it?
-The class will be held in an active learning format because research shows that simply listening
1.Name the two types of nucleic acids and describe how they differ in structure, monomer
composition, and function.
-DNA and RNA. DNA is genetic material that a person gets from their parents.It codes for
different proteins, which in turn control your phy
Define element, compound, atomic number, atomic mass, and isotope.
Isotope is one form of an element that has different atomic mass because different number of neutrons,
usually radioactive. Element is a chemical in its simplest form. Compound are combin
TEST # 2
Word and Excel 2016
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or
answers the question. (3 points each)
1) Microsoft Word is an example of which type of computer appli
Territorial Gains of the United States in the 1800s
During the 1700s and early 1800s, the United States of America was small thirteen
colonies. At this time, American settlers did not believe United States politicians had the power
or wealth to expand and
Biology is the study of living organisms and how they function in their specific habitats.
In order to learn about these organisms, many compelling research methods are used. One
organism heavily studied in the field of biology is the bean be
Use the text book and my powerpoints (not the internet) to answer, in your own words, the following
questions about Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis.
Where do you find ATP synthase in animal cells? (2.5 pts)
Within the mitochondrial
Here are some homework questions for class block 2
Read Chapter 5 in the text and answer the following questions. 2pt each
1). Why are phospholipids arranged as they are in a membrane? What orientation would they
adopt if the intrac
Sunday, October 19, 2014
Mitosis & Cell division
Reading: Sections 12.1-12.2 in textbook
Describe the overall purposes of cell division and the cell cycle.
When prokaryotes divide, they are actually reproducing. The
Define organismal development and describe what occurs in each of the four processes
responsible for it.
Organismal Development- can be defined as the process of systematic, gene-directed changes
through which an organism forms the successive stages of it
Explain the basic structures, composition, and life cycle that viruses share.
All viruses have the same basic structurea core of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein sheath known
as capsid. This structure lacks cytoplasm, and it is not a cell. Individual
Define what promoters, transcription factors (general and specific), activators, and enhancers
are. Draw and explain the function of a transcription initiation complex.
Promoters- contain DNA-binding sites for general transcription factors. These factors
1. Compare and contrast the structure and functions of different fibers in the cytoskeleton.
2. Describe the role of microtubules and motor proteins in intracellular transport.
3. Identify the different cytoskeletal elements involved in cell movement, and
Describe the structure and function of the electron transport chain. Draw a picture of the
electron transport chain, placing it in the correct orientation in the cell and showing how
the different components and processes are linked together spatially and
Describe the inputs and outputs of pyruvate oxidation, and the two metabolic pathways it links
Upon entering the mitochondrion via active transport, pyruvate is first converted to a compound called
acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl CoA. Linking glycol
List the inputs and outputs of the Calvin cycle, describing both where it occurs and its purpose.
inputs: ATP, NADPH, CO2
outputs: ADP, G3P, NADP+, Pi
It takes places in the stroma of chloroplast.
Purpose: fixate carbon, produce glucose and other
Describe the experimental evidence used to identify DNA as the genetic material, and to
determine its structure.
Each DNA nucleotide monomer consists of a nitrogenous base (A, T, C, or G), the sugar
deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The phosphate group
Explain what selective permeability is, how it is achieved, and how different kinds of
molecules cross the membrane.
Selective permeability is when the cell is able to take up some small molecules and ions and
exclude others. Also substances that move
Define and contrast oxidation and reduction reactions. Describe what role they play in cellular
Oxidation is the loss of electrons from a substance. Reduction is the addition of electrons to
another substance. It is important in cellular resp
Describe what test crosses are used for and how are they carried out. Be able to use test cross data to
Test crosses are a fundamental tool devised by Gregor Mendel. In its simplest form, a test cross is an
experimental cross of an in
1. Describe the fluid mosaic model, relating both the fluid and the mosaic parts of the
model to membrane structure and behavior.
The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure includes both the fluid nature of the membrane
and the mosaic composition of pro
Draw a figure that summarizes what occurs during cellular respiration. Label where in a
cell glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport occur.
Compare and contrast the different organisms that use fermentation, anaerobic
Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs.
Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food from the substances available in their
surroundings using light (photosynthesis) or chemical energy (chemosynthesis). Heterotrophs cannot
Compare and contrast DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a circular shape, and there is only one replication origin when replication
starts. By contrast, eukaryotic DNA is linear; it does not connect end to end to
Define what it means to catalyze a reaction, contrasting the course of a reaction with and without
To catalyze a reaction means to lower the activation energy required for a reaction to
occur which increases the rate of the chemical reaction.
Define energy and describe the different forms, giving an example of each.
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. The two forms of energy are kinetic energy,
or energy of motion, and potential energy, or stored energy. The ultimate source of
Draw a picture of a tRNA molecule, showing how it is charged with the correct amino acid.
Contrast the initiation and termination of transcription versus translation.
Initiation- polymerase binds to promoter regions in the DNA.