A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement
or diminished if followed by a punisher.
o What is an operant?
A RANDOM behavior.
When will behaviors increase?
Behaviors that have high involvement a
What is Learning?
Learning - A relatively new understanding in knowledge or behavior that results from
Relatively Permanent Some argue that once you learn something it is
always present because it results in biological changes in the
Anterograde amnesia: inability to store new information in long-term memory
Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve long-term memories from the past
People often think of memory as a photographic recording.
There are also 2 types of punishment:
Decreases behavior by PRESENTING an aversive stimulus.
o Example: spanking
Decreases behavior by REMOVING a pleasant stimulus.
o Example: taking away TV privileges
Nurture Argument for the impact on our Behavior
Environment influences our behavior
The environment also includes experiences and social influences.
How does the environment influence behavior directly or indirectly?
Directly: We perceive our world around
Learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than the
original. Natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex
An unlearned, involuntary response that is not under personal control or
o Vermont, September 1848
o Supervisor for Rutland and Burland Railroad
o The tamping iron accident
Brief loss of consciousness, a few convulsion
Within minutes: speaking, assisted walking
Piagets Stage theory: 4 Stages:
1. Sensorimotor Stage
2. Preoperational Stage
3. Concrete Operations
4. Formal Operations
Cognitive Comparison: Interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing
schemas. (distort new information to fit your view)
Patterns in Reinforcement
There are patterns of reinforcement:
Fixed Interval - A Fixed interval does not produce a fast rate of responding
eventually will only respond when time approaches
Research has shown that factor workers indeed to speed up work t
Bobo Doll Experiment
Research on Punishment
o Avoid the punisher instead of the behavior being punished.
o May encourage lying to avoid the punishment
o Can create fear and anxiety, emotional responses that do not promote learning
o Can lead to modeling o