Psychology of Adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood
extending from puberty to about age 18-20?
o Historically speaking, adolescence is a relatively new concept.
o Not surprisingly, we know relatively little about the ps
Sensations of Our Senses: Smell and Touch
Our thalamus and hippocampus processes work together to help us sort out complex
Absolute Threshold The maximum capability of our senses.
Candle flame 30 miles on a clear nigh
Stages of Memory
What is Memory?
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
o Information processing analogy: Brain is like a computer
Information Processing Remembering any event requires:
o Attachment Theory The relationshipi a child has with his or her guardians
determines the pattern of relationships he or she will have in the future.
o Emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences, particularly
Applications of Classical Conditioning
John B. Watson (Behaviorism)
Viewed psychology as objective science, a generally agreed-upon
Recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable
Not universally accepted
Retrieval of Information
Long-Term: memory storage that holds an UNLIMITED amount of information for an indefinite
amount of time.
Types of long-term memory:
Procedural (memory for habits and skills)
o Sematic Memory - memory for facts
Vision and Biological Attributes
Vision Our processing of what we see occurs in the Occipital Lobe of the brain.
What ever our right eye sees, information is sent to the left side of the brain.
What ever our left eye sees, information is sent to the right
The Ear and Our Ability to Hear
Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones
(hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on
the cochleas oval window
Innermost part of the ear, co
The Cerebral Cortex: The thin wrinkled layer of tissue covering the cerebral hemispheres.
o Why is the brain wrinkled?
The cortex is divided into 4 Lobes:
o The Frontal Lobe:
o Abstract, complex thoughts, emotional processing
o Planning and problem solvin
The Biological Perspective
Lower Level Brain Structures
Studying the Brain
1) Lower Level Brain Structures
For this section, know the name of the different brain structures.
Bobo Doll Experiment
Research on Punishment
o Avoid the punisher instead of the behavior being punished.
o May encourage lying to avoid the punishment
o Can create fear and anxiety, emotional responses that do not promote learning
o Can lead to modeling o
What is Learning?
Learning - A relatively new understanding in knowledge or behavior that results from
Relatively Permanent Some argue that once you learn something it is
always present because it results in biological changes in the
Anterograde amnesia: inability to store new information in long-term memory
Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve long-term memories from the past
People often think of memory as a photographic recording.
There are also 2 types of punishment:
Decreases behavior by PRESENTING an aversive stimulus.
o Example: spanking
Decreases behavior by REMOVING a pleasant stimulus.
o Example: taking away TV privileges
Nurture Argument for the impact on our Behavior
Environment influences our behavior
The environment also includes experiences and social influences.
How does the environment influence behavior directly or indirectly?
Directly: We perceive our world around
Learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than the
original. Natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex
An unlearned, involuntary response that is not under personal control or
o Vermont, September 1848
o Supervisor for Rutland and Burland Railroad
o The tamping iron accident
Brief loss of consciousness, a few convulsion
Within minutes: speaking, assisted walking
Piagets Stage theory: 4 Stages:
1. Sensorimotor Stage
2. Preoperational Stage
3. Concrete Operations
4. Formal Operations
Cognitive Comparison: Interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing
schemas. (distort new information to fit your view)
Patterns in Reinforcement
There are patterns of reinforcement:
Fixed Interval - A Fixed interval does not produce a fast rate of responding
eventually will only respond when time approaches
Research has shown that factor workers indeed to speed up work t
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement
or diminished if followed by a punisher.
o What is an operant?
A RANDOM behavior.
When will behaviors increase?
Behaviors that have high involvement a
How do we define a child ?
o Biological Development Surprisingly well adapted for survival. Newborns can
recognize human faces and voices.
o Biologically hard wired and involuntary behaviors/movements
o When touched on the cheek, babies
o an adolescents struggle to identify a personal identity or self-concept
o Adolescents experiment with different possible identities.
o Some of these may be extreme
Relationships with Parents
o Adolescents and parents fight more frequentl
Exam 3 Memory and Thinking Study Guide 1
Lecture 12/Chapter 6 Memory
What is Memory?
Information Processing requires three things (encoding, etc)
Types of Memory (Sensory, Short-term, Long-term)
- Ways to process information (automatic vs effortf
Exam 3 Motivation Study Guide 2
What does Reliability and Validity mean?
Aptitude versus Achievement Tests
Nature/Nurture and IQ
Racial Differences in IQ
- Hernstein and Murray
- Kamins Cornfield analogy
Reasons for Biases in
Gender and Moral Reasoning
o Carol Gilligan:1936 o In a Different Voice (1983) - Her best-selling 1983 book, "In a Different Voice:
Psychological Theory and Women's Development," was heralded by critics as important,
provocative and imaginative.
Cultural Impacts on Psychology
In traditional societies (even our own only 50 or 100 years ago), a young man or woman looked
up to his or her parents, relations, neighbors, and teachers.
o They were decent, hard-working people (most of them) and we wanted
Nature Argument for our Behavior
Why do we act the way we do?
Is it caused by genes or the environment?
Argues that Biology influences human behavior
1. DNA influences
2. Cells influences
3. Organs influences
4. Organism which influences
Moral Dilemma Situation
Famous theory of development
Joe is a fourteen year old boy who wanted to go to camp very much. His father
promised him he could go if he saved up the money for it himself. So Joe worked
hard at his paper route and saved up the $40
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 1987)
Saw adolescence as an important time for the development of moral reasoning
o Psychologist, moral theorist
Proposed a 3 stage theory of moral development
o Based on piagetian development
Kohlberg was born into wealth on Octob