What is the difference between climate and weather? Weather-is the daily conditions at a particular location. Climate -is the average weather (temperature and precipitation) over a region. (30 year average). Controls of Climate Radiation primary driving
The proportional distribution of water Nearly all of the Earth's water is contained in the world ocean.
Fresh surface and soil water make up only a small fraction of the total volume of global water.
Ice sheets and glaciers are the se
Control's of Earth's Surface Temperatures
Latitude Land and Water Distribution Ocean Currents Altitude
Landform Barriers Human Activity
Most important control on temperature Temp typically cools as you move towards the poles. The only except
BSh Subtropical/tropical Steppe Low Latitude-hot Climate Characteristics Semi arid Slightly more precipitation than desert dry arid "semi-desert" with short grasses
BSk Mid-latitude dry semiarid - steppe Major Controls: Rainshadow in U.S. Continentality C
Air temperature Control's of Earth's Surface Temperatures Latitude Land and Water Distribution Ocean Currents Altitude Landform Barriers Human Activity Chapter Overview Atmospheric Pressure Local Wind Patterns Cyclones and Anticyclones Global Wind and Pre
Types of Coastlines
Barrier island of sand lies a short distance from the coast and is created by wave
action and increase in height as sand dunes grow on them. They low relief and are
not attached to the mainland.
Common along the
The Work of Waves and Tides
Marine Scarps and Cliffs
The force of tons of water moving up and down the beach can do enormous amounts of
Weak or soft materials-the forward movement of the waves cuts into the coastline.
Erosion is rapid and the shorel
The Geographic Cycle - or Cycle of Erosion is a model for stream erosion and
landscape development. This theory suggests that landscapes go through stages of
development and that the rejuvenation of landscapes arises from tectonic uplif
The rapids are eroded until their gradient is closer to the streams average
The main stream branches into higher parts of the original land mass carving out
many new small drainage basins.
With a graded stream, floodplains develop.
The river wa
The Work of Streams and Stream Gradation
Stream Erosion streams erode in various ways depending on the nature of the channel
Flowing water drags on the bed and banks and forces particles to hit. This can erode
alluvial materials (sand, silt, cl
Accelerated Soil Erosion
Colluvium: deposit of sediment or rock particles accumulating from overland flow
at the base of a slope and originating from higher slopes where sheet erosion is in
loose bodies of sediment that have been deposited or b
Weathering and Mass Wasting
Earths crust, its mineral composition, lithospheric plates, a few
examples of landforms.
Today: Weathering: how rocks are softened and how they break up.
Weathering: all the processes that physically disr
A powerful and inspiring landscape, the Grand Canyon overwhelms our senses through
its immense size; 277 river miles (446km) long, up to 18 miles (29km) wide, and a mile
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided gorge carved by the Colo
The Nature of Underground Water
Water contained within soil, sediments, and rock
Primary inputs to the underground subsystem is precipitation and
snowmelt that infiltrates into the ground.
Water first passes through the zone
Climographs Precipitation is shown as a bar graph Temperature is shown as a line graph Global circulation patterns ITCZ and Subtropical High follow the sun's position. ITCZ brings summer rain Semi-permanent high pressure cells also follow sun Stable, dry,
Coriolis Effect Winds in the Northern Hemisphere moving across a gradient from high to low pressure are apparently deflected to the right of their expected path (and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere).
Upper atmosphere: The Coriolis Effect and Wind
Variations in Atmospheric Pressure Cells of High and Low Pressure Low (Cyclone) = L Air is ascending (rising) Low pressure Convergence at surface High (anticyclone) = H Air is descending (subsidence) High pressure Divergence at surface Horizontal Differen
Trade Winds (5o-25o) blow out of the subtropical highs toward equatorial low in N + S hemispheres. Northeast trades Southeast trades Tropical easterlies The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) The tradewinds from tropics of both hemispheres converge on
Subarctic, very cold winters Dfd, Dwd
Applies to all subarctic climates in general: -Controls Extreme continentality High latitudes 50-70 degrees Westerlies in the summer Occasional cyclonic storms Strong polar anticyclone in winter -Climate Characteristi
Study Guide for Exam 3 Physical Geography Chapter 6 Air Masses (general info and location) Have an understanding of thunderstorm/cloud uplift/development 4 primary ways clouds form Fronts: cold, warm, occluded, stationary What are the three types of cyclo
Monsoon Winds Monsoon- directional reversal of winds from one season to the next Seasonal shift of the winds Low pressure (summer) wet High pressure (winter) dry Asian Monsoon Summer Low pressure and convergence is strong and onshore flow of moisture is l
Af - wet all year Major controls: Year round high insolation ITCZ low pressure Dominated by mT air masses Climate characteristics: Hot/wet all year Seasonless low annual temperature range (of only 3C (5F). Af Geographic Distribution: World: along the equa
Humid Subtropical Hot-Summer Cfa Climate Controls: Weak western side of STHP Brings in mT into Texas in summer Climate Characteristics: Humid summers-warm moderated by the coast Becomes hotter inland Mild winters with occasional fronts Precipitation all y
Humid Continental Hot-Summer Climates Humid Continental Mild-Summer Climates Subarctic Climates Microthermal Climates Mean temperature of coolest month is below 26.6F (-3C) Humid Continental Hot-Summer Dfa, Dwa -Controls Cyclonic storms along polar front
Global Pressure and Wind Systems A Model of Global Pressure Latitudinal patterns of surface atmospheric pressure Equator low (trough) has the greatest annual heating Subtropical High -30oN and S related to sinking of convectional cells by the equatorial l
ENSO and NAO
pressure sytems. Vary in size, intensity, and locational shifting with the seasons and sun's migration.
The equatorial low
moves north in July, following the sun's seasonal migration. hi
EF Icecap climate -Controls Latitude Continental Interior Year round influence of Polar High Pressure -Climate Characteristics: Summerless All months below freezing average temp of warmest month is 32F or below. World's coldest temperatures Geographic Dis
Dry Climates (B) BW & BS Third Letter h = subtropical/tropical low latitude hot k = mid-latitude - cold BWh Subtropical/tropical desert Controls: Dominated by STHP Africa fits best Continentality - hot Climate Characteristics Low and Irregular precipitati
Cyclones and Anticyclones Cyclone: center of low atmospheric pressure Air spirals inward (convergence) and upward Associated with cloudy, rainy weather Anticyclone: center of high atmospheric pressure Air spirals downward and outward (divergence) Associat
Slopes guide the flow of water downhill to form streams or
Most natural surfaces slope and sediments consists of rock or mineral particles that are
transported and deposited by fluids.
This sediment called alluvium lies at the valle