Voters in some EU states have been offered national referendums, as a result of
which Europe has become the single most voted-on issue in the world.
The subject of most referendums has been either membership of the EEC/EU or
the euro, or appro
Political parties carry out several essential roles:
They represent the views and interests of voters and party members.
They offer voters competing sets of public policy options.
They recruit and provide a training ground for politic
Powers of the EP
Under the codecision procedure, shares powers with the Council of Ministers over
discussion and approval of new legislative proposals, and of the EU budget
May encourage or pressure the Commission to develop new proposals
Most negotiations take place within the Committee of Permanent Representatives
(Coreper), made up of representatives from the member states.
The Council is supported by a complex network of working parties and
Work is supported by a General S
Judges and President
The Court is headed by 27 judges, each appointed for renewable six-year terms of
office, with each member state having control over one appointment.
The rate of turnover is relatively high, which has both advantages and
With economic issues long at the heart of European integration, banks have been
at the heart of institutional development.
The Luxembourg-based European Investment Bank (1958) lends on favourable
terms to capital projects that support t
Crafting the ECSC widely seen as a way to calm neighbors in the face
of growing German strength.
Deepening of the EU signaled German resolve to promote
multilateralism rather than aggression support for federalism
Kohl: Support for the E
Nuremberg Laws (1935)
Proclaimed during the 1935 Nuremburg Rally
Laws severely restricted the freedoms of German Jews
the Jim Crow Laws in the American South= a model for segregation
Forbade Marriage & Sexual Relations between Germans & Jews
Influence of the Member States
The role and influence of member states within the EU is
determined by at least four key factors:
How long each state has been a member of the EU, those that have been in
longest having had more time to shape the rules.
If the debate over how the EU evolved was dominated by scholars of international
relations, the debate over what the EU has become have been increasingly
dominated by scholars of comparative politics.
This approach helps us describe p