In 2001 a European Convention was held to draft a constitutional treaty for the
EU, ending the process of periodically amending the treaties. It was published in
2003, but rejected by national referendums in France and the Netherlands in 200
Single European Act
Concerns that progress on completing the single market was slow, leading to
agreement on the 1986 Single European Act (Jacques Delors), the first substantial
change to the Treaty of Rome.
Coming into force in 1987, its key goal was t
On 9 May 1950, the Schuman Plan (championed by Jean Monnet and Robert
Shuman) was announced.
This led to the signing in April 1951 of the Treaty of Paris, which created the
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952.
With six founding members (Fran
Citizenship and Patriotism
Although the EU has promoted an EU citizenship (giving EU citizens the right to
live in different EU states and to vote in local and European Parliament elections,
for example), this is not the same as providing Europeans with
From European Community to European Union
1991/1993 Maastricht Treaty cont.
Britains rejection of greater EU involvement in social policy
Ratification crisis: Danish electorate (referendum) rejects TEU
The ECs response to resentment towards the EC :
European Union Institutions
Institutional triangle: three main governing bodies
the European Parliament represents the EU citizens and is directly elected by
the Council of the European Union represents the individual member states
the European Co
Presidents are appointed by the European Council for renewable five-year terms,
with the following responsibilities:
Convening and chairing College meetings.
Laying down guidelines for the Commission and deciding upon its
The Qualities of EU Policy
EU policy is driven by many of the same pressures as policy in the member states,
but has six particular qualities:
1. Compromise and bargaining. All democratic politics is driven by the need to
blend multiple competing opinion
Understanding the Treaties
A constitution is a document (or a set of documents) that sets out the general rules
and principles by which a state is governed.
The EU does not have a constitution as such, but it has a body of treaties that have
almost the sa
States and Nations
Academic debate about the origins and history of the EU have been dominated by
theories of international relations, which portray the EU as an international
organization driven by decisions taken by the governments of the member states.