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Chapter 7 Control Techniques in Experimen
Chapter 9 podcast
Threats to Validity
Validity can be threatened in many ways
 Presence of confounding variables
 Unrepresentative samples
 Inappropriately analyzing your data very clear threat to internal validity
 Subject and experimenter effects: s
Constructs v. Measured Vbls.
Psychology measurements objections: to obtain scores on one of more psychological constructs.
personality, emotions for each individual we are assessing
problem: things we are trying to measure in these constructs are not rea
Review of Chapter 2
Range: one measure of variability
Not used to calculate the variance
Calculating mean: (aka "the average") the fulcrum around which all the other scores balance
Review of Chapter 2
Calculating the variance: 1. find the mean 2. s
Chapter 4  continued
Approaches to Psychological Measurement
Physiological Measures
Based upon the modern assumption that all behavior, thought, and emotion is a product of neurological processes in the brain Four basic types of physiological measu
Chapter 3 part 2
The Measurement of Behavior Continued
Review
Types of measures
Observational, physiological, selfreport
Scales of measurement
Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
Reliability
Consistency or dependability of measure Reliability =
Review of Chapter of Chapter 1
Questions about human behavior, thoughts, emotion could be addressed scientifically Basic Research vs. Applied Research Three general goals of psychological research Two Primary Tasks of Scientists Hypothesis vs Theory
Principles of Psychological Research PSYC 2094
Rob Walters, M.S.
Instructor
Chapter 1 Research in the Behavioral Sciences
Thought Experiment
Imagine, as vividly as you can, a scientist at work. Let your imagination fill in as many details as possi
Chapter 10
1. What is the null hypothesis examined in the typical "true experiment"?
2. What is the importance of random assignment to conditions/treatments in true experiments?
 less confounds because they are being randomly assigned
3. What is the 'cos
Chapter 12 Factorial Designs
Factorial Designs
Includes two or more independent variables
 We can have any number but at least 2
 Once we have the 2, it opens up the study in variation and their joined affect on the
dependent variable
Essentially two (
Chapter 5
40. What is the importance of objective measurement?
 any measure that requires little or no judgment on the part of the person making the
measurement
41. What is a histogram, and a frequency polygon?
 Histogram: a bar graph in which the frequ
Chapter 5 podcast
Individual Differences
 People differ from one another
 Without differences there isnt any variability= no research and no relationship between
variables
 People differ from one occasion to another
 Significant differences are tested
Chapter 11 Podcast
CorrelatedGroups Designs
Introduces a correlation (lack of independence) between groups in the way groups are formed
Withinsubjects design: (most common)
Same participants in each group
Matchedgroups design (not frequently encount
Chapter 8
1. What kinds of hypotheses can be tested in research?
 Null Hypothesis
Confounding Variable Hypothesis
Casual Hypothesis
2. How is the 'null' always phrased?
 opposite of whatever the prediction is
3. How is the 'causal' hypothesis stated?

Chapter 6
1. What is a confound?
 A confounding variable, also known as a third variable or a mediator variable, can
adversely affect the relation between the independent variable and dependent
variable. This may cause the researcher to analyze the resul
Chapter 10: SingleVariable, Independent Groups Designs
Experimental Design
Test one or more hypotheses about causal effects of the independent variable (IV)
 Independent causes dependent
 Independent variable= group membership (categorical)
 Have to
Chapter 6 Naturalistic Observation and CaseStudy Research
Naturalistic Observation and CaseStudy Research Lowest constraint of all case studies
As we add control and constraint, we loose realism
More realism=less control
Challenge of Low Constraint Re
Chapter 4
1. What kind of data are ranks?
2. Give examples of nominal scales.
 provides categorical membership data (catholic, jewish)
3. What kinds of transformations can be performed on each of the various Stevens levels of
measurement?
 Isomorphic: o
Hypothesis Notes
When we notice that two variables are related in some systematic way (example studying and test performance) we attempt to explain how and why there is a relationship between the variables
Theory
A theory is a set of propositions
Chapter 15
Scientific Writing
Disseminating Findings
If science is to advance knowledge, then scientists must share their findings with others Once research is made public:
Others can build upon it or refine it It can be challenged Replication
Chapter 6
Correlational Research
Correlations
We generally hold many unscientific beliefs about the associations between events in the world. What are some examples?
In conducting correlational research we examine whether scores on two variables
Chapter 5 part 2
Review
Probability = knowing the probability of being selected from the entire population
Nonprobability Samples
In many research cases it is impossible or impractical (if not unnecessary) to obtain a probability sample Often pr
Descriptive Research
Chapter 5
Descriptive Research
The goal of descriptive research is to describe the characteristics or behaviors of a given population in a systematic and accurate fashion
Typically not designed to test hypotheses but is condu
Approaches to Psychological Measurement
Chapter 4 part 2
Types of Measures
1. Observational Methods
2. Physiological Measures
3. SelfReport Measures 4. Archival Methods
Reliability of Observational Methods
The most important type of reliability
Chapter 3 Review
Three basic methods of estimating the reliability of a measure: correlation coefficient Validity
Face Construct CriterionRelated
Test Bias
Chapter 4
Approaches to Psychological Measurement
Types of Measures
1. Observationa
Chapter 3 part 2
The Measurement of Behavior Continued
Review
Types of measures
Observational, physiological, selfreport
Scales of measurement
Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
Reliability
Consistency or dependability of measure Reliab
Review of Chapter 2
Range: one measure of variability
Not used to calculate the variance
Calculating mean: (aka "the average") the fulcrum around which all the other scores balance
Review of Chapter 2
Calculating the variance: 1. find the mean
Behavioral Variability in Research
Chapter 2
Behavioral Variability
In psychology (and all behavioral sciences) we hope to answer questions about behavioral variability
Behavioral Variability: How and why behavior varies across situations, differs